Skip to content

Recrystallization (chemistry) – Wikipedia, the fre

2010 July 18
Posted by xvlgi
Recrystallization (chemistry) - Wikipedia,chaussures de football, the free encyclopedia
Recrystallization (chemistry)From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation,nike basket,searchInsulin crystalsThis article needs additional citations for verification.Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2009)It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Crystallization and Crystal growth. (Discuss)Recrystallization (see also crystallization) is a physical process that has meanings in chemistry, metallurgy and geology.Contents1 Chemistry1.1 Single-solvent recrystallization1.2 Multi-solvent recrystallization1.3 Hot filtration-recrystallization1.4 Seeding1.5 Single perfect crystals (for X-ray analysis)2 Ice3 See also4 References5 Reference books6 Gallery[edit] ChemistryIn chemistry, recrystallization[1] is a procedure for purifying compounds. The most typical situation is that a desired "compound A" is contaminated by a small amount of "impurity B". There are various methods of purification that may be attempted (see Separation process), which includes recrystallization. There are also different recrystallization techniques that can be used such as:[edit] Single-solvent recrystallizationTypically, the mixture of "compound A" and "impurity B" are dissolved in the smallest amount of solvent to fully dissolve the mixture, thus making a saturated solution. Normally the solvent is warmed before use, increasing solubility. The solution is then allowed to cool. As the solution cools the solubility of compounds in solution drops. This results in the desired compound dropping (recrystallizing) from solution. The slower the rate of cooling, the bigger the crystals formed.→ Solvent added (clear) to compound (orange) → Solvent heated to give saturated compound solution (orange) → Saturated compound solution (orange) allowed to cool over time to give crystals (orange) and a saturated solution (pale-orange).Crystallization of Ibuprofen in HCl(aq)The crystallization process requires an initiation step. Once a small crystal has formed, more crystals can grow from that crystal. Since "Compound A" is in excess this will usually result in these crystals forming first and thus leaves a greater ratio of impurity in solution. Thus the resulting solid is more pure than the original mixture.The level of purity can then be checked by taking a melting point range of the solid and comparing it to an accepted melting point range, if one exists. Compounds that are more pure have less melting point depression and melt over a narrower temperature range. Naturally, other analytical techniques can also be used to assess compound purity, including NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis.This purification technique results in the inevitable loss of the part of "compound A" that remains in solution. A yield of 80% is a reasonably good purification.[citation needed] However, the impure solution can be concentrated and the procedure repeated to gather a "second crop" of crystals.Successful recrystallization depends on finding the right solvent. This is usually a combination of prediction/experience and trial/error. The mixture must be soluble at higher temperatures,mercurial vapor, and must be insoluble (or have low solubility) at lower temperatures.[edit] Multi-solvent recrystallizationThis method is the same as the above but where two (or more) solvents are used. This relies on both "compound A" and "impurity B" being soluble in a first solvent. A second solvent is slowly added. Either "compound A" or "impurity B" will be insoluble in this solvent and precipitate, whilst the other of "compound A"/"impurity B" will remain in solution. Thus the proportion of first and second solvents is critical. Typically the second solvent is added slowly until one of the compounds begins to crystallize from solution and then the solution is cooled. Heating is not required for this technique but can be used.→ Solvent added (clear) to compound (orange) → Solvent heated to give saturated compound solution (orange) → Second solvent (blue) added to compound solution (orange) to give mixed solvent system (green) → Mixed solvent system (green) allowed to cool over time to give crystals (orange) and a saturated mixed solvent system (green-blue).The reverse of this method can be used where a mixture of solvent dissolves both A and B. One of the solvents is then removed by distillation or by an applied vacuum. This results in a change in the proportions of solvent causing either "compound A" or "impurity B" to precipitate.→ First solvent added (clear) to compound (orange) → Solvent heated to give saturated compound solution (orange) → Second solvent (blue) added to compound solution (orange) to give first mixed solvent system (green) → Volatile first solvent (clear) is removed (e.g. evaporation) from first mixed solvent system (green) to give a second mixed solvent system (dark-green) → Second mixed solvent system (dark-green) allowed to cool over time to give crystals (orange) and a saturated second mixed solvent system (green-blue).[edit] Hot filtration-recrystallizationHot filtration[2] can be used to separate "compound A" from both "impurity B" and some "insoluble matter C". This technique normally uses a single-solvent system as described above. When both "compound A" and "impurity B" are dissolved in the minimum amount of hot solvent, the solution is filtered to remove "insoluble matter C". This matter may be anything from a third impurity compound to fragments of broken glass. For a successful procedure, one must ensure that the filtration apparatus is hot in order to stop the dissolved compounds crystallizing from solution during filtration, thus forming crystals on the filter paper or funnel.One way to achieve this is to heat a conical flask containing a small amount of clean solvent on a hot plate. A filter funnel is rested on the mouth, and hot solvent vapors keep the stem warm. Jacketed filter funnels may also be used. The filter paper is preferably fluted, rather than folded into a quarter; this allows quicker filtration, thus less opportunity for the desired compound to cool and crystallize from the solution.Often it is simpler to do the filtration and recrystallization as two independent and separate steps. That is dissolve "compound A" and "impurity B" in a suitable solvent at room temperature, filter (to remove insoluble compound/glass), remove the solvent and then recrystallize using any of the methods listed above.→ Solvent added (clear) to a mixture of compound (orange) + insoluble substance (purple) → Solvent heated to give saturated compound solution (orange) + insoluble substance (purple) → Saturated compound solution (orange) filtered to remove insoluble substance (purple) → Saturated compound solution (orange) allowed to cool over time to give crystals (orange) and a saturated solution (pale-orange).[edit] SeedingCrystallization requires an initiation step. This can be spontaneous or can be done by adding a small amount of the pure compound (a seed crystal)[1] to the saturated solution, or can be done by simply scratching the glass surface to create a seeding surface for crystal growth. It is thought that even dust particles can act as simple seeds.[edit] Single perfect crystals (for X-ray analysis)Growing crystals for X-ray crystallography can be quite difficult. For X-ray analysis, single perfect crystals are required. Typically a small amount (5-100 mg) of pure compound is used, and crystals are allowed to grow very slowly. Several techniques can be used to grow these perfect crystals:Slow evaporation of a single solvent - typically the compound is dissolved in a suitable solvent and the solvent is allowed to slowly evaporate. Once the solution is saturated crystals can form.→ Solvent added (clear) to compound (orange) to give compound solution (orange) → Vessel sealed but a small hole allows solvent vapour (clear) to slowly evaporate from compound solution (orange) over time to give crystals (orange) and a saturated solution (pale-orange).Slow evaporation of a multi-solvent system - the same as above, however as the solvent composition changes due to evaporation of the more volatile solvent. The compound is more soluble in the volatile solvent, and so the compound becomes increasingly insoluble in solution and crystallizes.→ Solvent added (clear) to compound (orange) to give compound solution (orange) → Second solvent added (blue) to compound solution (orange) to give mixed solvent system (green) → Vessel sealed but a small hole allows solvent vapour (clear) to slowly evaporate over time to give crystals (orange) and a saturated mixed solvent solution (blue-green).Slow diffusion - similar to the above. However, a second solvent is allowed to evaporate from one container into a container holding the compound solution (gas-diffusion). As the solvent composition changes due to an increase in solvent that is has gas-diffused into solution,basket air jordan, the compound become increasingly insoluble in solution and crystallizes.→ Solvent added (clear) to compound (orange) in first vessel to give compound solution (orange) → First vessel is placed in a second vessel contain second solvent (blue). The second vessel is sealed, the first vessel is also sealed, although a small hole in the first vessel is present. This hole allows volatile solvent vapour (blue) to slowly evaporate from second vessel and condensate (that is infuse) into the first vessel, to give a mixed solvent system (green) → Over time this gives crystals (orange) and a saturated mixed solvent system (green-blue).Interface/slow mixing (often performed in an NMR tube). Similar to the above, but instead of one solvent gas-diffusing into another, the two solvents mix (diffuse) by liquid-liquid diffusion. Typically a second solvent is "layered" carefully on top of the solution containing the compound. Over time the two solution mix. As the solvent composition changes due to diffusion, the compound becomes increasingly insoluble in solution and crystallizes, usually at the interface.→ Solvent added (clear) to compound (orange) to give compound solution (orange) → Second solvent added (blue) carefully so that the two solvents do not mix. → The two solvents mix (diffuse) slowly over time to give crystals (orange) at solvent interface (green)Specialized equipment can be used in the shape of a "H" to perform the above,mercurial pas cher, where one of the vertical line of the "H" is a tube containing a solution of the compound, and the other vertical line of the "H" is a tube containing a solvent which the compound is not soluble in, and the horizontal line of the "H" is a tube which joins the two vertical tubes, which also has a fine glass sinter that restricts the mixing of the two solvents.→ Solvent added (clear) to compound (orange) to give a compound solution (orange) → Second solvent added (blue) to the second tube chamber → The two solvents mix slowly over time, the mixing is slowed by a fine sinter separating the two solvent chambers, to give crystals (orange) at solvent interface (green) over timeOnce single perfect crystals have been obtained, it is recommended that the crystals are kept in a sealed vessel with some of the liquid of crystallisation to prevent the crystal from 'drying out'. Single perfect crystals may contain solvent of crystallisation in the crystal lattice. Loss of this internal solvent from the crystals can result in the crystal lattice breaking down, and the crystals turning to powder.[edit] IceFor ice, recrystallization refers to the growth of larger crystals at the expense of smaller ones. Some biological antifreeze proteins have been shown to inhibit this process, and the effect may be relevant in freezing-tolerant organisms.[edit] See alsoCrystal structureCrystallization and engineering aspectsFractional crystallization (chemistry)Laser-heated pedestal growthSeed crystalSingle crystal[edit] References^ a b Laurence M. Harwood, Christopher J. Moody (1989). Experimental organic chemistry: Principles and Practice. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. pp. 127�132. ISBN 0632020172. ^ Laurence M. Harwood, Christopher J. Moody (1989). Experimental organic chemistry: Principles and Practice. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. pp. 74. ISBN 0632020172. [edit] Reference booksLaurence M. Harwood, Christopher J. Moody, Jonathan M. Percy. "Experimental organic chemistry: standard and microscale". http://books.google.com/books?id=9mAEtf8zzXYC&lpg=PP1&dq=moody%20harwood%20chemistry&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=&f=false. John Leonard, B. Lygo, Garry Procter. "Advanced practical organic chemistry". http://books.google.com/books?id=aP88FuFO5QUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Advanced+Practical+Inorganic&source=gbs_similarbooks_s&cad=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false. [edit] GallerySingle Protein crystal of Lysozymev ? d ? eSeparation processesProcessesAbsorption ・ Acid-base extraction ・ Adsorption ・ Chromatography ・ Cross-flow filtration ・ Crystallization ・ Cyclonic separation ・ Dialysis (biochemistry) ・ Dissolved air flotation ・ Distillation ・ Drying ・ Electrochromatography ・ Electrofiltration ・ Filtration ・ Flocculation ・ Froth flotation ・ Gravity separation ・ Leaching (chemical science) ・ Liquid-liquid extraction ・ Microfiltration ・ Osmosis ・ Precipitation (chemistry) ・ Recrystallization ・ Reverse osmosis ・ Sedimentation ・ Solid Phase Extraction ・ Sublimation ・ Ultrafiltration (industrial)DevicesAPI oil-water separator ・ Belt filter ・ Centrifuge ・ Depth filter ・ Electrostatic precipitator ・ Evaporator ・ Filter press ・ Fractionating column ・ Mixer-settler ・ Protein skimmer ・ Rotary vacuum-drum filter ・ Scrubber ・ Spinning cone ・ Still ・ Sublimation apparatusMultiphase systemsAqueous two phase system ・ Azeotrope ・ EutecticConceptsUnit operationRetrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recrystallization_(chemistry)"Categories: Chemical processes | Laboratory techniques | Phase changes | Separation processes | Semiconductor growthHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from October 2009 | All articles needing additional references | Articles to be merged from October 2009 | All articles to be merged | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from March 2009Personal toolsNew featuresLog in / create accountNamespacesArticleDiscussionVariantsViewsReadEditView historyActionsSearchNavigationMain pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleInteractionAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact WikipediaDonate to WikipediaHelpToolboxWhat links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkCite this pagePrint/exportCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable versionLanguagesРусскийDeutsch This page was last modified on 18 June 2010 at 18:54.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;additional terms may apply.See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Contact usPrivacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimers

More articles related to the topic:

1895 British Home Championship – Wikipedia, the fr

2010 July 18
Posted by xvlgi
1895 British Home Championship - Wikipedia,nike mercurial, the free encyclopedia
1895 British Home ChampionshipFrom Wikipedia,nike mercurial vapor france, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation,searchThe 1895 British Home Championship was an international football tournament played between the British Home Nations. The competition was won by England, who like second placed Wales,basket air jordan, did not loose a game. Wales however failed to win one either, scoring three draws and so finishing behind England. Scotland took joint second place with three points gained from a win, draw and a loss. Ireland came last with a single point garnered from their draw with Wales.England and Ireland played the first match of the competition, the Irish suffering a 9–0 defeat in Derby to give England the immediate advantage. Ireland and Wales then played a 2–2 draw in Belfast before England and Wales drew at the Queen's Club, the only international football match ever played there. Wales finished their competition as Scotland entered it, the teams drawing in Wrexham to give Wales three points in an unbeaten tournament. Scotland beat Ireland in their second game, ending Ireland's tournament with a single point before England and Scotland, level on points, played out the decider at Goodison Park. In the event England were just too strong,nike mercurial vapor, easily dismissing their opponents 3–0 to win the trophy.[edit] TableTeamPtsPldWDLGFGAGD England53210131+12 Wales33030550 Scotland3311156?1 Ireland13012314?11The points system worked as follows:2 points for a win1 point for a draw[edit] Results9 March 1895England 9–0 IrelandCounty Cricket Ground, DerbySteve Bloomer 2, Frank Becton 2, Johnny Goodall 2, Billy Bassett, Raby Howell, Own Goal 16 March 1895Ireland 2 – 2 WalesSolitude Ground, BelfastGeorge Gaukrodger, James SherrardHarry Trainer 218 March 1895England 1 – 1 WalesQueen's Club,nike jordan, LondonRupert SandilandsWilliam Lewis23 March 1895Wales 2 – 2 ScotlandRacecourse Ground, WrexhamWilliam Lewis, Thomas ChapmanJake Madden, John Divers30 March 1895Scotland 3 – 1 IrelandCeltic Park, GlasgowJohn Walker 2, William LambieJames Sherrard6 April 1895England 3 – 0 ScotlandGoodison Park, LiverpoolSteve Bloomer, Steve Smith, Own Goal [edit] ReferencesGuy Oliver (1992). The Guinness Record of World Soccer. Guinness. ISBN 0-851129-54-4. v ? d ? eBritish Home ChampionshipFootball in the United Kingdom: England ·  Northern Ireland ·  Scotland ·  WalesCompetitors England ·   Northern Ireland/ Ireland ·   Scotland ·   WalesSeasons1884 ·  1885 ·  1886 ·  1887 ·  1888 ·  1889 ·  1890 ·  1891 ·  1892 ·  1893 ·  1894 ·  1895 ·  1896 ·  1897 ·  1898 ·  1899 ·  1900 ·  1901 ·  1902 ·  1903 ·  1904 ·  1905 ·  1906 ·  1907 ·  1908 ·  1909 ·  1910 ·  1911 ·  1912 ·  1913 ·  1914 ·  First World War ·  1920 ·  1921 ·  1922 ·  1923 ·  1924 ·  1925 ·  1926 ·  1927 ·  1928 ·  1929 ·  1930 ·  1931 ·  1932 ·  1933 ·  1934 ·  1935 ·  1936 ·  1937 ·  1938 ·  1939 ·  Second World War ·  1947 ·  1948 ·  1949 ·  1950 ·  1951 ·  1952 ·  1953 ·  1954 ·  1955 ·  1956 ·  1957 ·  1958 ·  1959 ·  1960 ·  1961 ·  1962 ·  1963 ·  1964 ·  1965 ·  1966 ·  1967 ·  1968 ·  1969 ·  1970 ·  1971 ·  1972 ·  1973 ·  1974 ·  1975 ·  1976 ·  1977 ·  1978 ·  1979 ·  1980 ·  1981 ·  1982 ·  1983 ·  1984Rous Cup ·  Home Nation matches since 1984Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1895_British_Home_Championship"Categories: 1895 in association football | 1895 in the United Kingdom | British Home ChampionshipsPersonal toolsNew featuresLog in / create accountNamespacesArticleDiscussionVariantsViewsReadEditView historyActionsSearchNavigationMain pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleInteractionAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact WikipediaDonate to WikipediaHelpToolboxWhat links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkCite this pagePrint/exportCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable versionLanguagesPolski This page was last modified on 17 April 2010 at 16:19.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;additional terms may apply.See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Contact usPrivacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimers

More articles related to the topic:

Glitter and Trauma – Wikipedia, the free encyclope

2010 July 18
Posted by xvlgi
Glitter and Trauma - Wikipedia,chaussures de football, the free encyclopedia
Glitter and TraumaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation,basket air jordan,search"Glitter and Trauma"Single by Biffy Clyrofrom the album Infinity LandB-side"Bonanzoid Deathgrip""Stars and Shites""There's No Such Thing As A Jaggy Snake"Released9 August 2004 (UK)FormatCD, DVD,nike pas cher, 7"RecordedMonnow Valley StudiosMonmouth,mercurial nike, WalesGenreAlternative rockLength5:10 (Album version)4:06 (Radio version)LabelBeggars BanquetBBQ377CD (UK, CD)BBQ377DVD (UK, DVD)BBQ377 (UK, 7")Writer(s)Simon NeilProducerChris SheldonBiffy Clyro singles chronology"There's No Such Thing As A Jaggy Snake"(2004)"Glitter and Trauma"(2004)"My Recovery Injection"(2004)Infinity Land track listing"Glitter and Trauma""Strung To Your Ribcage""My Recovery Injection""Got Wrong""The Atrocity""Some Kind Of Wizard""Wave Upon Wave Upon Wave""Only One Word Comes To Mind""There’s No Such Man As Crasp""There's No Such Thing As A Jaggy Snake""The Kids From Kibble And The Fist Of Light""The Weapons Are Concealed""Pause It And Turn It Up""Glitter and Trauma" is a song by Biffy Clyro, which opens their 2004 album, Infinity Land. It was the first physical single from the album, and their eighth single overall. It reached number 21 in the UK Singles Chart.[edit] Track listingSongs and lyrics by Simon Neil. Music by Biffy Clyro.CD BBQ377CD"Glitter and Trauma (Radio Edit)" � 4:06"Bonanzoid Deathgrip" � 4:20"Stars and Shites" � 3:23DVD BBQ377DVD"Glitter and Trauma" (Video)"Go Your Own Way" (Fleetwood Mac Cover) � 2:22Untitled Movie (Video)7" BBQ377"Glitter and Trauma (Radio Edit)" � 4:06"There's No Such Thing As A Jaggy Snake (Peel Session)" � m:ss[edit] PersonnelSimon Neil � guitar, vocalsBen Johnston � drums, vocalsJames Johnston � bass, vocalsChris Sheldon � producer[edit] External links"Glitter and Trauma" Lyrics"Glitter and Trauma" Guitar Tablature"Glitter and Trauma" Music Videov ? d ? eBiffy ClyroSimon Neil ・ James Johnston ・ Ben JohnstonStudio albumsBlackened Sky ・ The Vertigo of Bliss ・ Infinity Land ・ Puzzle ・ Only RevolutionsExtended playsThekidswhopoptodaywillrocktomorrowCompilationsSingles 2001�2005 ・ Missing Pieces - The Puzzle B-SidesSingles"Iname" ・ "27" ・ "Justboy" ・ "57" ・ "Joy.Discovery.Invention" ・ "Toys, Toys,nike mercurial, Toys, Choke, Toys, Toys, Toys" ・ "The Ideal Height" ・ "Questions and Answers" ・ "Eradicate the Doubt" ・ "There's No Such Thing As A Jaggy Snake" ・ "Glitter and Trauma" ・ "My Recovery Injection" ・ "Only One Word Comes To Mind" ・ "Semi-Mental" ・ "Saturday Superhouse" ・ "Living Is a Problem Because Everything Dies" ・ "Folding Stars" ・ "Machines" ・ "Who's Got a Match?" ・ "Mountains" ・ "That Golden Rule" ・ "The Captain" ・ "Many of Horror" ・ "Bubbles"Related articlesDiscography ・ Songs ・ Sucioperro ・ Marmaduke Duke ・ Aereogramme ・ Chris Sheldon ・ Beggars Banquet ・ 14th Floor RecordsThis 2000s rock single-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.v ? d ? eRetrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glitter_and_Trauma"Categories: Biffy Clyro songs | 2004 singles | Songs written by Simon Neil | 2000s rock single stubsPersonal toolsNew featuresLog in / create accountNamespacesArticleDiscussionVariantsViewsReadEditView historyActionsSearchNavigationMain pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleInteractionAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact WikipediaDonate to WikipediaHelpToolboxWhat links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkCite this pagePrint/exportCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version This page was last modified on 29 June 2010 at 18:50.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;additional terms may apply.See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Contact usPrivacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimers

More articles related to the topic:

City of Bristol Choir – Wikipedia, the free encycl

2010 July 18
Posted by xvlgi

,chaussures de football

City of Bristol Choir - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
City of Bristol ChoirFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation,searchThis article is an orphan, as few or no other articles link to it. Please introduce links to this page from related articles; suggestions are available. (February 2009)This article needs references that appear in reliable third-party publications. Primary sources or sources affiliated with the subject are generally not sufficient for a Wikipedia article. Please add more appropriate citations from reliable sources. (December 2009)The City of Bristol Choir is a mixed voice choir of around 85 auditioned singers, whose aim is to sing a wide range of choral music to the highest possible standard. The choir gives five or six concerts a year in different venues around the South West, but mostly in Bristol. The choir's size gives it flexibility to perform music in diverse styles, from intimate Renaissance music polyphony and partsongs to large scale works with orchestra.City of Bristol Choir was formed in 1991 by Malcolm Archer (now organist and director of music at Winchester College). The choir now enjoys a busy schedule of concerts and events under the direction of David Ogden,mercurial nike, who was appointed Director of Music in 2000.Recent seasons have included performances of Szymanowski's Stabat Mater, Brahms' Requiem, three major Elgar oratorios � The Apostles, The Dream of Gerontius and The Kingdom.and Mozart's Mass in C Minor, as well as a summer concert of jazz standards. In October 2006,nike basket, City of Bristol Choir visited Portugal for its first European tour where it gave two concerts and sang at morning mass at the magnificent Lapa Church in Oporto. They have toured to Florence in 2008 since.2009 has so far been, and promises to be, a spectacular year for the Choir. It has held a Handel 250 festival, which included three concerts and a performance of the enthralling Dixit Dominus, and his rarely-performed Dettingham Te Deum. The next milestone for the choir will be Beethoven's Ninth Symphony: one of the greatest of all works.[edit] External linksCity of Bristol ChoirThis article on a United Kingdom band or other musical ensemble is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.v ? d ? eRetrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_of_Bristol_Choir"Categories: English choirs | Music from Bristol,nike mercurial vapor, England | United Kingdom musical group stubsHidden categories: Orphaned articles from February 2009 | All orphaned articles | Articles lacking reliable references from December 2009 | All articles lacking reliable referencesPersonal toolsNew featuresLog in / create accountNamespacesArticleDiscussionVariantsViewsReadEditView historyActionsSearchNavigationMain pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleInteractionAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact WikipediaDonate to WikipediaHelpToolboxWhat links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkCite this pagePrint/exportCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version This page was last modified on 19 April 2010 at 00:07.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;additional terms may apply.See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Contact usPrivacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimers

More articles related to the topic:

Tetrahedron – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia_173

2010 July 18
Posted by xvlgi
Tetrahedron - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
TetrahedronFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation,searchFor the academic journal, see Tetrahedron (journal).Regular Tetrahedron(Click here for rotating model)TypePlatonic solidElementsF = 4, E = 6V = 4 (χ = 2)Faces by sides4{3}Schl?fli symbol{3,3} and s{2,2}Wythoff symbol3 | 2 3| 2 2 2Coxeter-DynkinSymmetryTdor (*332)ReferencesU01, C15, W1PropertiesRegular convex deltahedronDihedral angle70.528779° = arccos(1/3)3.3.3(Vertex figure)Self-dual(dual polyhedron)NetIn geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. A regular tetrahedron is one in which the four triangles are regular, or "equilateral", and is one of the Platonic solids. The tetrahedron is the only convex polyhedron that has four faces.[1]The tetrahedron is the three-dimensional case of the more general concept of a simplex.The tetrahedron is one kind of pyramid, which is a polyhedron with a flat polygon base and triangular faces connecting the base to a common point. In the case of a tetrahedron the base is a triangle (any of the four faces can be considered the base), so a tetrahedron is also known as a triangular pyramid.Like all convex polyhedra, a tetrahedron can be folded from a single sheet of paper. It has two nets.[1]For any tetrahedron there exists a sphere (the circumsphere) such that the tetrahedron's vertices lie on the sphere.Contents1 Formulas for regular tetrahedron2 Volume3 Distance between the edges4 Properties of a generalized tetrahedron5 Geometric relations5.1 Related polyhedra5.2 Intersecting tetrahedra6 Isometries6.1 Isometries of regular tetrahedra6.2 Isometries of irregular tetrahedra7 A law of sines for tetrahedra and the space of all shapes of tetrahedra8 Applications9 See also10 References11 External links[edit] Formulas for regular tetrahedronFor a regular tetrahedron of edge length a:Base plane areaSurface area[2]Height[3]Volume[2]Angle between an edge and a face(approx. 54.7356°)Angle between two faces[2](approx. 70.5288°)Angle between the segments joining the center and the vertices(approx. 109.4712°)Solid angle at a vertex subtended by a face(approx. 0.55129 steradians)Radius of circumsphere[2]Radius of insphere that is tangent to faces[2]Radius of midsphere that is tangent to edges[2]Radius of exspheresDistance to exsphere center from a vertexNote that with respect to the base plane the slope of a face () is twice that of an edge (), corresponding to the fact that the horizontal distance covered from the base to the apex along an edge is twice that along the median of a face. In other words, if C is the centroid of the base, the distance from C to a vertex of the base is twice that from C to the midpoint of an edge of the base. This follows from the fact that the medians of a triangle intersect at its centroid, and this point divides each of them in two segments, one of which is twice as long as the other (see proof).[edit] VolumeThe volume of a tetrahedron is given by the pyramid volume formula:where A0 is the area of the base and h the height from the base to the apex. This applies for each of the four choices of the base, so the distances from the apexes to the opposite faces are inversely proportional to the areas of these faces.For a tetrahedron with vertices a = (a1, a2, a3), b = (b1, b2, b3), c = (c1, c2, c3), and d = (d1, d2, d3), the volume is (1/6)・|det(a?b, b?c, c?d)|, or any other combination of pairs of vertices that form a simply connected graph. This can be rewritten using a dot product and a cross product, yieldingIf the origin of the coordinate system is chosen to coincide with vertex d, then d = 0, sowhere a, b, and c represent three edges that meet at one vertex, and  is a scalar triple product. Comparing this formula with that used to compute the volume of a parallelepiped, we conclude that the volume of a tetrahedron is equal to 1/6 of the volume of any parallelepiped that shares three converging edges with it.The triple scalar can be represented by the following determinants:    or        where        is expressed as a row or column vector etc.Hence    where        etc.which gives,where  are the plane angles occurring in vertex d. The angle  is the angle between the two edges connecting the vertex d to the vertices b and c. The angle  does so for the vertices a and c, while  is defined by the position of the vertices a and b.Given the distances between the vertices of a tetrahedron the volume can be computed using the Cayley�Menger determinant:where the subscripts  represent the vertices  and  is the pairwise distance between them―i.e., the length of the edge connecting the two vertices. A negative value of the determinant means that a tetrahedron cannot be constructed with the given distances. This formula, sometimes called Tartaglia's formula, is essentially due to the painter Piero della Francesca in the 15th century, as a three dimensional analogue of the 1st century Heron's formula for the area of a triangle.[4][edit] Distance between the edgesAny two opposite edges of a tetrahedron lie on two skew lines. If the closest pair of points between these two lines are points in the edges, they define the distance between the edges; otherwise, the distance between the edges equals that between one of the endpoints and the opposite edge. Let d be the distance between the skew lines formed by opposite edges a and b-c as calculated in [5]. Then another volume formula is given by[edit] Properties of a generalized tetrahedronThe tetrahedron has many properties analogous to those of a triangle, including an insphere, circumsphere, medial tetrahedron, and exspheres. It has respective centers such as incenter, circumcenter, excenters, Spieker center and points such as a centroid. However, there is generally no orthocenter in the sense of intersecting altitudes. The circumsphere of the medial tetrahedron is analogous to the triangle's nine point circle, but does not generally pass through the base points of the altitudes of the reference tetrahedron.[6]To resolve these inconsistencies, a substitute center known as the Monge point that always exists for a generalized tetrahedron is introduced. This point was first identified by Gaspard Monge. For tetrahedra where the altitudes do intersect, the Monge point and the orthocenter coincide. The Monge point is defined as the point where the six midplanes of a tetrahedron intersect. A midplane is defined as a plane that is orthogonal to an edge joining any two vertices that also contains the centroid of an opposite edge formed by joining the other two vertices.An orthogonal line dropped from the Monge point to any face is coplanar with two other orthogonal lines to the same face. The first is an altitude dropped from a corresponding vertex to the chosen face. The second is an orthogonal line to the chosen face that passes through the orthocenter of that face. This orthogonal line through the Monge point lies mid way between the altitude and the orthocentric orthogonal line.The Monge point, centroid and circumcenter of a tetrahedron are colinear and form the Euler line of the tetrahedron. However, unlike the triangle, the centroid of a tetrahedron lies at the midpoint of its Monge point and circumcenter.There is an equivalent sphere to the triangular nine-point circle for the generalized tetrahedron. It is the circumsphere of its medial tetrahedron. It is a twelve point sphere centered at the circumcenter of the medial tetrahedron. By definition it passes through the centroids of the four faces of the reference tetrahedron. It passes through four substitute Euler points that are located at a distance of 1/3 of the way from M, the Monge point, toward each of the four vertices. Finally it passes through the four base points of orthogonal lines dropped from each Euler point to the face not containing the vertex that generated the Euler point.[7]If T represents the center of the twelve-point sphere, then it also lies on the Euler line. However, unlike its triangular counterpart, the center lies 1/3 of the way from the Monge point M towards the circumcenter. Also, an orthogonal line through T to a chosen face is coplanar with two other orthogonal lines to the same face. The first is an orthogonal line passing through the corresponding Euler point to the chosen face. The second is an orthogonal line passing through the centroid of the chosen face. This orthogonal line through the twelve-point center lies midway between the Euler point orthogonal line and the centroidal orthogonal line. Furthermore, for any face, the twelve-point center lies at the mid point of the corresponding Euler point and the orthocenter for that face.The radius of the twelve-point sphere is 1/3 of the circumradius of the reference tetrahedron.If OABC forms a generalized tetrahedron with a vertex O as the origin and vectors  and  represent the positions of the vertices A, B, and C with respect to O, then the radius of the insphere is given by:and the radius of the circumsphere is given by:which gives the radius of the twelve-point sphere:where:The vector position of various centers are given as follows:The centroidThe circumcenterThe Monge pointThe Euler line relationships are:where  is twelve-point center.Also:and:[edit] Geometric relationsA tetrahedron is a 3-simplex. Unlike the case of the other Platonic solids, all the vertices of a regular tetrahedron are equidistant from each other (they are the only possible arrangement of four equidistant points in 3-dimensional space).A tetrahedron is a triangular pyramid, and the regular tetrahedron is self-dual.A regular tetrahedron can be embedded inside a cube in two ways such that each vertex is a vertex of the cube, and each edge is a diagonal of one of the cube's faces. For one such embedding, the Cartesian coordinates of the vertices are(+1, +1, +1);(?1, ?1, +1);(?1, +1, ?1);(+1, ?1, ?1).This yields a tetrahedron with edge-length 2√2, centered at the origin. For the other tetrahedron (which is dual to the first),basket nike, reverse all the signs. These two tetrahedra's vertices combined are the vertices of a cube, demonstrating that the regular tetrahedron is the 3-demicube.The stella octangula.The volume of this tetrahedron is 1/3 the volume of the cube. Combining both tetrahedra gives a regular polyhedral compound called the compound of two tetrahedra or stella octangula.The interior of the stella octangula is an octahedron, and correspondingly, a regular octahedron is the result of cutting off, from a regular tetrahedron, four regular tetrahedra of half the linear size (i.e., rectifying the tetrahedron).The above embedding divides the cube into five tetrahedra, one of which is regular. In fact, 5 is the minimum number of tetrahedra required to compose a cube.Inscribing tetrahedra inside the regular compound of five cubes gives two more regular compounds, containing five and ten tetrahedra.Regular tetrahedra cannot tessellate space by themselves, although this result seems likely enough that Aristotle claimed it was possible. However, two regular tetrahedra can be combined with an octahedron,nike mercurial, giving a rhombohedron that can tile space.However, there is at least one irregular tetrahedron of which copies can tile space. If one relaxes the requirement that the tetrahedra be all the same shape, one can tile space using only tetrahedra in various ways. For example, one can divide an octahedron into four identical tetrahedra and combine them again with two regular ones. (As a side-note: these two kinds of tetrahedron have the same volume.)The tetrahedron is unique among the uniform polyhedra in possessing no parallel faces.[edit] Related polyhedraTruncated tetrahedronTwo tetrahedra in a cubeCompound of five tetrahedraCompound of ten tetrahedraA truncation process applied to the tetrahedron produces a series of uniform polyhedra. Truncating edges down to points produces the octahedron as a rectified tetahedron. The process completes as a birectification, reducing the original faces down to points, and producing the self-dual tetrahedron once again.NameTetrahedronTruncatedtetrahedronRectifiedtetrahedron(Octahedron)Bitruncatedtetrahedron(Truncatedtetrahedron)Birectifiedtetrahedron(Tetrahedron)PictureCoxeter-Dynkindiagram[edit] Intersecting tetrahedraAn interesting polyhedron can be constructed from five intersecting tetrahedra. This compound of five tetrahedra has been known for hundreds of years. It comes up regularly in the world of origami. Joining the twenty vertices would form a regular dodecahedron. There are both left-handed and right-handed forms, which are mirror images of each other.[edit] Isometries[edit] Isometries of regular tetrahedraThe proper rotations and reflections in the symmetry group of the regular tetrahedronThe vertices of a cube can be grouped into two groups of four, each forming a regular tetrahedron (see above, and also animation, showing one of the two tetrahedra in the cube). The symmetries of a regular tetrahedron correspond to half of those of a cube: those that map the tetrahedrons to themselves, and not to each other.The tetrahedron is the only Platonic solid that is not mapped to itself by point inversion.The regular tetrahedron has 24 isometries, forming the symmetry group Td, isomorphic to S4. They can be categorized as follows:T, isomorphic to alternating group A4 (the identity and 11 proper rotations) with the following conjugacy classes (in parentheses are given the permutations of the vertices, or correspondingly, the faces, and the unit quaternion representation):identity (identity; 1)rotation about an axis through a vertex, perpendicular to the opposite plane, by an angle of ±120°: 4 axes, 2 per axis, together 8 ((1 2 3), etc.; (1 ± i ± j ± k)/2)rotation by an angle of 180° such that an edge maps to the opposite edge: 3 ((1 2)(3 4), etc.; i, j, k)reflections in a plane perpendicular to an edge: 6reflections in a plane combined with 90° rotation about an axis perpendicular to the plane: 3 axes, 2 per axis, together 6; equivalently, they are 90° rotations combined with inversion (x is mapped to ?x): the rotations correspond to those of the cube about face-to-face axes[edit] Isometries of irregular tetrahedraThe isometries of an irregular tetrahedron depend on the geometry of the tetrahedron, with 7 cases possible. In each case a 3-dimensional point group is formed.An equilateral triangle base and isosceles (and non-equilateral) triangle sides gives 6 isometries, corresponding to the 6 isometries of the base. As permutations of the vertices, these 6 isometries are the identity 1, (123), (132), (12), (13) and (23), forming the symmetry group C3v, isomorphic to S3.Four congruent isosceles (non-equilateral) triangles gives 8 isometries. If edges (1,2) and (3,4) are of different length to the other 4 then the 8 isometries are the identity 1, reflections (12) and (34), and 180° rotations (12)(34), (13)(24),nike mercurial, (14)(23) and improper 90° rotations (1234) and (1432) forming the symmetry group D2d.Four congruent scalene triangles gives 4 isometries. The isometries are 1 and the 180° rotations (12)(34), (13)(24), (14)(23). This is the Klein four-group V4 ? Z22, present as the point group D2.Two pairs of isomorphic isosceles (non-equilateral) triangles. This gives two opposite edges (1,2) and (3,4) that are perpendicular but different lengths, and then the 4 isometries are 1, reflections (12) and (34) and the 180° rotation (12)(34). The symmetry group is C2v, isomorphic to V4.Two pairs of isomorphic scalene triangles. This has two pairs of equal edges (1,3), (2,4) and (1,4), (2,3) but otherwise no edges equal. The only two isometries are 1 and the rotation (12)(34), giving the group C2 isomorphic to Z2.Two unequal isosceles triangles with a common base. This has two pairs of equal edges (1,3), (1,4) and (2,3), (2,4) and otherwise no edges equal. The only two isometries are 1 and the reflection (34), giving the group Cs isomorphic to Z2.No edges equal, so that the only isometry is the identity, and the symmetry group is the trivial group.[edit] A law of sines for tetrahedra and the space of all shapes of tetrahedraA corollary of the usual law of sines is that in a tetrahedron with vertices O, A, B, C, we haveOne may view the two sides of this identity as corresponding to clockwise and counterclockwise orientations of the surface.Putting any of the four vertices in the role of O yields four such identities, but in a sense at most three of them are independent: If the "clockwise" sides of three of them are multiplied and the product is inferred to be equal to the product of the "counterclockwise" sides of the same three identities, and then common factors are cancelled from both sides, the result is the fourth identity. One reason to be interested in this "independence" relation is this: It is widely known that three angles are the angles of some triangle if and only if their sum is a half-circle. What condition on 12 angles is necessary and sufficient for them to be the 12 angles of some tetrahedron? Clearly the sum of the angles of any side of the tetrahedron must be a half-circle. Since there are four such triangles, there are four such constraints on sums of angles, and the number of degrees of freedom is thereby reduced from 12 to 8. The four relations given by this sine law further reduce the number of degrees of freedom, not from 8 down to 4, but only from 8 down to 5, since the fourth constraint is not independent of the first three. Thus the space of all shapes of tetrahedra is 5-dimensional.[edit] ApplicationsThe ammonium ion is tetrahedral4-sided dieA tetrahedral light object by Martina Schettina, AustriaNumerical analysisComplex shapes are often broken down into a mesh of irregular tetrahedra in preparation for finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics studies.ChemistryThe tetrahedron shape is seen in nature in covalent bonds of molecules. All sp3-hybridized atoms are surrounded by atoms lying in each corner of a tetrahedron. For instance in a methane molecule (CH4) the four hydrogen atoms surround the carbon atom with tetrahedral symmetry. For this reason, one of the leading journals in organic chemistry is called Tetrahedron. The ammonium ion is another example. Water is an example as well, since the oxygen atom is not only surrounded by two hydrogen atoms, but by two lone pairs as well. The symmetry isn't perfect in this case because of the inequivalency of the surrounding groups.Angle from the center to any two vertices is , or approximately 109.4712°.Quaternary phase diagrams are represented graphically as tetrahedronsElectronicsIf each edge of a tetrahedron were to be replaced by a one ohm resistor, the resistance between any two vertices would be 1/2 ohm.[8]GamesEspecially in roleplaying, this solid is known as a 4-sided die, one of the more common polyhedral dice, with the number rolled appearing around the bottom or on the top vertex.Some Rubik's Cube-like puzzles are tetrahedral, such as the Pyraminx and Pyramorphix.Color TranslationUsed in color space conversion algorithms specifically for cases in which the luminance axis diagonally segments the color space (e.g. RGB, CMY).[9]Contemporary ArtThe Austrian artist Martina Schettina created a tetrahedron using Fluorescent lamps. It was shown at the light art biennale Austria 2010.[10][edit] See alsoBoerdijk�Coxeter helixCaltropDemihypercubeDisphenoid ― a tetrahedron with mirror symmetryHill tetrahedronSimplexTetra-PakTetrahedral kiteTetrahedral molecular geometryTetrahedral numberTriangular dipyramid ― constructed by joining two tetrahedra along one faceTetrahedron packing[edit] References^ a b Weisstein, Eric W., "Tetrahedron" from MathWorld.^ a b c d e f Coxeter, H. S. M.: Regular Polytopes (Methuen and Co., 1948). Table I(i).^ [1]^ http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath424.htm^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skew_lines#Distance_between_two_skew_lines</a>^ Havlicek, H.; Wei?, G. (2003). "Altitudes of a tetrahedron and traceless quadratic forms". American Mathematical Monthly 110: 679�693.. doi:10.2307/3647851. http://www.geometrie.tuwien.ac.at/havlicek/pub/hoehen.pdf. ^ Outudee, Somluck; New, Stephen ([dead link]). The Various Kinds of Centres of Simpices. Dept of Maths., Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok. http://www.math.sc.chula.ac.th/ICAA2002/pages/Somluck_Outudee.pdf. ^ Klein, Douglas J. (2002). "Resistance-Distance Sum Rules" (PDF). Croatica Chemica Acta 75 (2): 633�649. http://jagor.srce.hr/ccacaa/CCA-PDF/cca2002/v75-n2/CCA_75_2002_633_649_KLEIN.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-15. ^ Vondran, Gary L. (April 1998). "Radial and Pruned Tetrahedral Interpolation Techniques" (PDF). HP Technical Report HPL-98-95: 1�32. http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/98/HPL-98-95.pdf. ^ Lightart-Biennale Austria 2010[edit] External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to: TetrahedronF. M. Jackson and Weisstein, Eric W.,nike jordan, "Tetrahedron" from MathWorld.Weisstein, Eric W., "Monge point" from MathWorld.Weisstein, Eric W., "Euler points" from MathWorld.The Uniform PolyhedraTetrahedron: Interactive Polyhedron ModelPiero della Francesca's formula for tetrahedron volume at MathPagesFree paper models of a tetrahedron and many other polyhedraAn Amazing, Space Filling, Non-regular Tetrahedron that also includes a description of a "rotating ring of tetrahedra", also known as a kaleidocycle.Tetrahedron Core Network Application of a tetrahedral structure to create resilient partial-mesh data networkExplicit exact formulas for the inertia tensor of an arbitrary tetrahedron in terms of its vertex coordinatesThe inertia tensor of a tetrahedronv ? d ? ePolyhedraDihedron ? Tetrahedron ? Pentahedron ? Hexahedron ? Heptahedron ? Octahedron ? Decahedron ? Dodecahedron ? Tetradecahedron ? Icosahedronv ? d ? ePolyhedron navigatorPlatonic solids (regular)tetrahedron ・  cube ・  octahedron ・  dodecahedron ・  icosahedronArchimedean solids(Semiregular/Uniform)truncated tetrahedron ・  cuboctahedron ・  truncated cube ・  truncated octahedron ・  rhombicuboctahedron ・  truncated cuboctahedron ・  snub cube ・  icosidodecahedron ・  truncated dodecahedron ・  truncated icosahedron ・  rhombicosidodecahedron ・  truncated icosidodecahedron ・  snub dodecahedronCatalan solids(Dual semiregular)triakis tetrahedron ・  rhombic dodecahedron ・  triakis octahedron ・  tetrakis cube ・  deltoidal icositetrahedron ・  disdyakis dodecahedron ・  pentagonal icositetrahedron ・  rhombic triacontahedron ・  triakis icosahedron ・  pentakis dodecahedron ・  deltoidal hexecontahedron ・  disdyakis triacontahedron ・  pentagonal hexecontahedronDihedral regulardihedron ・  hosohedronDihedral uniformprisms ・  antiprismsDuals of dihedral uniformbipyramids ・  trapezohedraDihedral otherspyramids ・  truncated trapezohedra  ・  gyroelongated bipyramid  ・  cupola  ・  bicupola  ・  pyramidal frustaDegenerate polyhedra are in italics.v ? d ? eUniform polyhedron navigatorPentagrammic crossed-antiprism       ・       Tetrahedron       ・       Truncated tetrahedronv ? d ? eUniform polyhedron navigatorPentagrammic concave deltohedron       ・       Tetrahedron       ・       Triakis tetrahedronv ? d ? eFundamental convex regular and uniform polytopes in dimensions 2�10nn-Simplexn-Orthoplex ? n-Hypercuben-Demicube1k2 ? 2k1 ? k21FamilyAnBCnDnEnFnGHnRegular polygonTriangleSquarePentagonUniform polyhedronTetrahedronOctahedron ? CubeDemicubeDodecahedron ? IcosahedronUniform polychoron5-cell16-cell ? TesseractDemitesseract24-cell120-cell ? 600-cellUniform 5-polytope5-simplex5-orthoplex ? 5-cube5-demicube112 ? 211Uniform 6-polytope6-simplex6-orthoplex ? 6-cube6-demicube122 ? 221Uniform 7-polytope7-simplex7-orthoplex ? 7-cube7-demicube132 ? 231 ? 321Uniform 8-polytope8-simplex8-orthoplex ? 8-cube8-demicube142 ? 241 ? 421Uniform 9-polytope9-simplex9-orthoplex ? 9-cube9-demicubeUniform 10-polytope10-simplex10-orthoplex ? 10-cube10-demicubeTopics: Polytope families ? Regular polytope ? List of regular polytopesRetrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrahedron"Categories: Deltahedra | Platonic solids | Self-dual polyhedra | Prismatoid polyhedra | Pyramids and bipyramidsHidden categories: All articles with dead external links | Articles with dead external links from March 2010Personal toolsNew featuresLog in / create accountNamespacesArticleDiscussionVariantsViewsReadEditView historyActionsSearchNavigationMain pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleInteractionAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact WikipediaDonate to WikipediaHelpToolboxWhat links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkCite this pagePrint/exportCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable versionLanguages???????Az?rbaycan?????БългарскиCatalà?eskyDanskDeutschΕλληνικ?Espa?olEsperantoEuskara?????Fran?ais???HrvatskiíslenskaItaliano?????KiswahiliLatvie?uL?tzebuergeschLietuvi?LimburgsBahasa MelayuNederlands日本�?Norsk (bokm?l)??????????PolskiPortuguêsRoman?РусскийSimple EnglishSloven?inaSloven??inaСрпски / SrpskiSuomiSvenska????????Укра?нська��中文 This page was last modified on 15 July 2010 at 09:38.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;additional terms may apply.See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation,nike shox, Inc., a non-profit organization.Contact usPrivacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimers

More articles related to the topic:

Mando Diao – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia_1272

2010 July 18
Posted by xvlgi
Mando Diao - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mando DiaoFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation,searchThis article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.It needs additional references or sources for verification. Tagged since February 2008.It may need copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone or spelling. Tagged since January 2009.It may require general cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Tagged since January 2009.Mando DiaoOriginBorl?nge, Dalarna County, SwedenGenresAlternative rockGarage rock revivalBlues rockIndie rockCountryYears active1995–presentLabelsNettwerk, Mute, EMI, MajestyWebsitewww.mando-diao.comMembersGustaf NorénBj?rn Dixg?rdCarl-Johan FogelklouSamuel GiersMats Bj?rkeFormer membersDaniel Haglund 1995 - 2003Mando Diao is an alternative rock band from Borl?nge, Sweden. The band got their breakthrough with the release of the album Hurricane Bar. The song "God Knows" was featured in FIFA 06. Their main fan base is in Sweden, Germany, and Japan although their influence has recently spread to Western Europe, most notably the UK.Contents1 Origin2 Recordings3 Touring4 Discography4.1 Albums4.2 Singles and EPs4.3 Compilations4.4 DVDs4.5 Videography5 References6 External links[edit] OriginThe roots of Mando Diao date back to 1995 when Bj?rn Dixg?rd and the former Mando Diao member Daniel Haglund played in a band called Butler. With band members changing over the following four years, the current line-up decided to take the project more seriously. Bj?rn Dixg?rd and Gustaf Norén locked themselves up in a summer house and spent 14 months writing songs. They claim the Beatles as their original source of inspiration. Allegedly, Gustaf joined the band after he and Bj?rn had talked all night about this band. The two renamed their band Mando Diao which, according to the band has no particular meaning, appearing to Bj?rn Dixg?rd in a dream, when a man came up to him and shouted "Mando Diao!".[edit] RecordingsThe now-renamed band made their first public performances in the clubs of their hometown Borl?nge in 1999. A local writer described them in an article as the best unsigned band he had ever seen. This was soon followed by a record deal with EMI Sweden. In 2002 their first album Bring 'Em In was released in Sweden. It contains early demo versions of their songs, partly recorded in the basement of keyboardist Daniel Haglund who left the band later in 2003. In 2003 the album was released internationally by MUTE label, along with their debut single "Sheepdog". As of 2004, the band is hailed enthusiastically by the music press as one of the most sanguine newcomer bands of the year. The album Hurricane Bar was released in 2004. Their third album Ode to Ochrasy was released in 2006. By the end of 2006 the band released a DVD called "Down in the Past". Ode to Ochrasy was released in the UK through the Nettwerk label on 2 April 2007 in a previously unreleased format including 4 bonus tracks. In October 2007 the band released their latest album, Never Seen The Light Of Day. They have announced to release a new album on February 20 2009. The new album's title is Give Me Fire and the first single, titled "Dance With Somebody", was released January 16 2009. As usual Bj?rn and Gustaf wrote lyrics and music and the album is produced by Mando Diao and The Salazar Brothers (Salla and Masse). The new album is a rocky soundtrack with lots of melancholy, soul, heart and blood. It debutes in Germany, Austria, Switzerland at #1 and Sweden #2 as well as #39 in Greece.[1] [2][edit] TouringMando Diao have been touring all over the world, though their biggest following is in Germany, Japan and their homeland Sweden. The band supported The Bravery on their tour in 2005, along with Los Angeles band The Colour. On their 2006 European tour,mercurial pas cher, they were supported by Razorlight and Johnossi, and for the British leg of the tour were a joint support act for the Dirty Pretty Things along with Larrikin Love.At the end of January 2007, Mando Diao were widely covered in the Swedish media because of an incident[3] at their live concert of January 27, 2007. They were performing at the Amplified festival at Norrlands Opera House in Ume? when a part of the floor the audience was standing on collapsed, leaving at least 25 fans hurt. Five people were taken to the hospital with injuries such as broken arms and legs. According to the management of Norrlandsoperan, the hall had been checked, but they had never thought the floor,chaussure mercurial, consisting of several moveable parts on concrete girders over a three meter deep hole, wouldn't hold the 170 people in the room,nike mercurial, not least since the fire department had given them approval for 800 people. After this unfortunate event,air jordan, Mando Diao stayed around in Ume? in case they could do anything to help the injured fans. They visited the hospitalized fans personally. Mando Diao is planning to hold another concert to make up for what was lost that evening in January 2007.Mando Diao appeared April 29, 2007 at the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival[1] and on July 7, 2007 they performed at the German leg of Live Earth[2] in Hamburg. Since the summer of 2007 Mando Diao have had support from a horn section consiting of renowned Swedish jazz musicians Nils Janson and Nils Berg.Mando Diao singer Bj?rn Dixg?rd toured Europe solo during the end of 2007.On November 3, 2008, the band played one US date for the "Give Me Fire" tour with the Capshuns and We Barbarians at the Troubadour in Los Angeles.[edit] Discography[edit] AlbumsYearDetailsPeak chart positionsCertifications(sales thresholds)SWE[4]AUT[5]CHE[6]GER[7]NLD[8]2002Bring 'Em InReleased: October 2002Label: EMI/Majesty/Mute5————JPN: Gold[citation needed]SWE: Gold[9]2004Hurricane BarReleased: September 22, 2004Label: Majesty/Mute6252618—AUT: Gold[citation needed]GER: Gold[10]2006Ode to OchrasyReleased: August 25, 2006Label: Majesty/Mute7253—AUT: Gold[citation needed]GER: Gold[10]2007Never Seen the Light of DayReleased: October 22, 2007Label: EMI910109—2009Give Me FireReleased: February 13, 2009Label: Universal211138AUT: Gold[citation needed]GER: Platinum[10]2009The Malevolence Of Mando Diao 2002-2007Released: October 12, 2009Label: EMI3067—58—[edit] Singles and EPsYearSinglePeak chart positionsAlbumSWE[11]AUT[12]CHE[13]FIN[14]GER[15]GRENLD[16]UK[17]2002"Motown Blood EP"37———————Bring 'Em In"Mr. Moon"33———————"The Band"52———————2003"Sheepdog"————————2004"Paralyzed EP"———————140"Clean Town"29———————Hurricane Bar"Down in the Past"————87——2382005"You Can't Steal My Love"———————73"God Knows"————90——642006"Long Before Rock 'N' Roll"165369—53———Ode to Ochrasy"Good Morning, Herr Horst"————————2007"TV & Me"————————"The Wildfire (If It Was True)"————————"Ochrasy"————————"If I Don't Live Today,I Might Be Here Tomorrow"15———————Never Seen the Light of Day"Never Seen the Light of Day"34———————2008"Train on Fire"————————2009"Dance with Somebody"41313249—Give Me Fire"Gloria"123249—33—77—"Mean Street EP"————89———"The Quarry"————————The Malevolence of Mando Diao 2002-2007"Nothing Without You"Give Me Fire (Special Ltd.Winter Edition)[edit] Compilations"God Knows" was featured on FIFA 06 by EA Sports."Down in the Past" was featured on 2006 Fifa World Cup Germany by EA Sports, and NHL 06 by EA Sports"The Wildfire (If It Was True) was featured on NHL 08 by EA Sports."Sheepdog" was featured in UK teen drama Skins."Sweet Ride" was featured in the 2005 film The Ringer"Long Before Rock and Roll" featured in E4 Scrubs advert Autumn 2007"God Knows" was also the backing track for a Tommy Hilfiger denim ad in 2007."Dance With Somebody" was featured in Portugal in the 2009 NOW 20 cd."Mean Street" was featured on Need for Speed: Shift by EA Games[edit] DVDsDown in the Past (2006)[edit] VideographyYearTitleDirector(s)Album2002"Mr. Moon"Magnus H?rdnerBring 'Em In"The Band"H?kan Schüler2003"Sheepdog"Pontus Andersson"Paralyzed"H?kan Schüler2004"Clean Town"Amir ChamdinHurricane Bar"God Knows"Johan Torell & John Nordqvist"Down in the Past"Kristoffer Di?s2005"You Can't Steal My Love"Mauricio Molinari2006"Long Before Rock 'N' Roll"Daniel EskilsOde to Ochrasy"Good Morning,mercurial vapor pas cher, Herr Horst"Lovisa Inserra"TV & Me"Kalle Haglund2007"The Wildfire (If It Was True)"Gilly Barnes"Ochrasy"Lovisa Inserra"If I Don't Live Today,I Might Be Here Tomorrow"Andreas NilssonNever Seen the Light of Day"Never Seen the Light of Day"Marcus Engstrand2008"Train On Fire"John Boisen & Bj?rn F?vremark"Dance With Somebody"Matt Wignall & Vern MoenGive Me Fire2009"Gloria"J?rn Heitmann"Mean Street"Matt Wignall"Nothing Without You"Matt Wignall[edit] References^ http://www.media-control.de/mando-diao-holen-sich-die-charts-krone.html^ http://austriancharts.at/showitem.asp?key=105057&cat=a^ Floor Collapse At Sweden’s Amplified Festival^ "Swedish album positions". swedishcharts.com. http://swedishcharts.com/search.asp?cat=a&search=Mando+Diao. Retrieved 26 July 2009. ^ "Austrian album positions". austriancharts.com. http://austriancharts.com/search.asp?cat=a&search=Mando+Diao. Retrieved 26 July 2009. ^ "Swiss album positions". hitparade.ch. http://hitparade.ch/search.asp?cat=a&search=Mando+Diao. Retrieved 26 July 2009. ^ "German album positions". musicline.de. http://musicline.de/de/chartverfolgung_summary/artist/Mando+Diao/?type=longplay. Retrieved 26 July 2009. ^ "Dutch album positions". dutchcharts.nl. http://dutchcharts.nl/search.asp?cat=a&search=Mando+Diao. Retrieved 26 July 2009. ^ "Swedish certificates: 2003". ifpi.se. http://www.ifpi.se/wp/wp-content/uploads/ar-20033.pdf. Retrieved 26 July 2009. ^ a b c "German certificates: searchable database". musikindustrie.de. http://www.musikindustrie.de/gold_platin_datenbank/?action=1&strSuche=Mando+Diao. Retrieved 26 July 2009. ^ "Swedish single positions". swedishcharts.com. http://swedishcharts.com/search.asp?cat=s&search=Mando+Diao. Retrieved 22 November 2009. ^ "Austrian single positions". austriancharts.com. http://austriancharts.com/search.asp?cat=s&search=Mando+Diao. Retrieved 26 July 2009. ^ "Swiss single positions". hitparade.ch. http://hitparade.ch/search.asp?cat=s&search=Mando+Diao. Retrieved 26 July 2009. ^ "Finnish single positions". finnishcharts.com. http://finnishcharts.com/search.asp?cat=s&search=Mando+Diao. Retrieved 26 July 2009. ^ "German single positions". musicline.de. http://musicline.de/de/chartverfolgung_summary/artist/Mando+Diao/?type=single. Retrieved 26 July 2009. ^ "Dutch single positions". dutchcharts.nl. http://dutchcharts.nl/search.asp?cat=s&search=Mando+Diao. Retrieved 22 November 2009. ^ "UK Chartlog: M – My Vitriol". zobbel.de. http://zobbel.de/cluk/CLUK_M.HTM. Retrieved 26 July 2009. [edit] External linksThe Official Mando Diao WebsiteMando Diao at MySpaceThe Supporter ClubVideo Interview Mando Diao: What is really important to you?13 songs chosen by and an interview with Mando Diao on Klangschau.comv ? d ? eMando DiaoMats Bj?rke · Bj?rn Dixg?rd · Carl-Johan Fogelklou · Samuel Giers · Gustaf NorénStudio albumsBring 'Em In · Hurricane Bar · Ode to Ochrasy · Never Seen the Light of Day · Give Me FireCompilationsThe Malevolence of Mando Diao 2002-2007EPsMotown Blood EP · Paralyzed EP · Mean Street EPSingles"Mr. Moon" · "The Band" · "Sheepdog" · "Clean Town" · "Down in the Past" · "You Can't Steal My Love" · "God Knows" · "Long Before Rock 'n' Roll" · "Good Morning, Herr Horst" · "TV & Me" · "The Wildfire (If It Was True)" · "Ochrasy" · "If I Don't Live Today, Then I Might Be Here Tomorrow" · "Never Seen the Light of Day" · "Train on Fire" · "Dance with Somebody" · Gloria" · "The Quarry" · "Nothing Without You"Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mando_Diao"Categories: Swedish indie rock groups | Garage punk | Artists from DalarnaHidden categories: Articles lacking reliable references from February 2008 | Wikipedia articles needing copy edit from January 2009 | All articles needing copy edit | Articles needing cleanup from January 2009 | All pages needing cleanup | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from July 2009Personal toolsNew featuresLog in / create accountNamespacesArticleDiscussionVariantsViewsReadEditView historyActionsSearchNavigationMain pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleInteractionAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact WikipediaDonate to WikipediaHelpToolboxWhat links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkCite this pagePrint/exportCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable versionLanguagesAfrikaansAsturianuCatalàDanskDeutschEspa?olEuskaraFran?aisGalego???HrvatskiBahasa IndonesiaItalianoL?tzebuergeschNederlands日本語PolskiPortuguêsРусскийSloven?inaСрпски / SrpskiSuomiSvenska This page was last modified on 17 June 2010 at 18:29.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;additional terms may apply.See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Contact usPrivacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimers

More articles related to the topic:

Master and Servant – Wikipedia, the free encyclope

2010 July 18
Posted by xvlgi
Master and Servant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Master and ServantFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation,searchThis article needs additional citations for verification.Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2010)"Master and Servant"Single by Depeche Modefrom the album Some Great RewardB-side"(Set Me Free) Remotivate Me"ReleasedAugust 20,mercurial nike, 1984FormatVinyl record (7" and 12"), CD (1991 box set)Recorded1984GenreSynthpopLength7" - 3:4812" - 9:38album - 4:12LabelMute RecordsWriter(s)Martin GoreProducerDepeche Mode, Daniel Miller, and Gareth JonesDepeche Mode singles chronology"People Are People"(1984)"Master and Servant"(1984)"Blasphemous Rumours / Somebody"(1984)"Master and Servant" is Depeche Mode's eleventh UK single (released on August 20, 1984) and the second single from the Some Great Reward album. Despite a lot of controversy surrounding the song, it still managed to reach #9 in the UK Singles Chart."Master and Servant" comes with the "Slavery Whip Mix", the longest 12" DM song at the time with the outro being turned into a swing version of the refrain,mercurial vapor, and the "Voxless" version which is an instrumental mix of the song. The B-side is "(Set Me Free) Remotivate Me", its Release Mix is the 12" version. The 7" version edits out much of the beginning.Some versions include a song called "Are People People?" which uses samples from "People Are People" and chanting. Both "Are People People?" and "Master and Servant [An ON-USound Science Fiction Dance Hall Classic]" appear on Remixes 81 - 04 in 2004. They are remixed by Adrian Sherwood.The production and mixing process of "Master and Servant" are remembered by Alan Wilder,chaussure mercurial, Daniel Miller, and Gareth Jones, as among the longest that Depeche Mode ever endured. One famous story about the song includes a mixing duration of seven days, and after all the reworking and final mastering of the mix, they realized they left the channel with the snare drum muted during the last chorus.The "Master and Servant" music video was directed by Clive Richardson.The overtly sexual, BDSM-themed lyrics of "Master and Servant" - complete with synthesized whip-and-chain sound effects - reportedly got the song banned by many radio stations in the United States (although the song reached the Billboard Hot 100 chart anyway, albeit only at #87 and for only a three-week chart stay). Reportedly the song narrowly avoided a radio ban by the BBC as well,air jordan pas cher, and might have been banned if the one BBC staffer (a senior staffer, no less) who wanted to ban the record had not been away on holiday at the time the other staffers voted on whether to add "Master and Servant" to their playlist. [1]Contents1 Track listings1.1 7": Mute / Bong6 (UK)1.2 7": Sire / 7-28918 (US)1.3 12": Mute / 12Bong6 (UK)1.4 L12": Mute / L12Bong6 (UK)1.5 12": Sire / 0-20283 (US)1.6 CD: Mute / CDBong6 (UK)2 External links[edit] Track listings[edit] 7": Mute / Bong6 (UK)"Master and Servant" � 3:46"(Set Me Free) Remotivate Me" � 4:12[edit] 7": Sire / 7-28918 (US)"Master and Servant" [edit] � 3:27"(Set Me Free) Remotivate Me" � 4:12[edit] 12": Mute / 12Bong6 (UK)"Master and Servant (Slavery Whip Mix)" � 9:38"(Set Me Free) Remotivate Me (Release Mix)" � 8:49"Master and Servant (Voxless)" � 4:00[edit] L12": Mute / L12Bong6 (UK)"Master and Servant (An ON-USound Science Fiction Dance Hall Classic)" � 4:34"Are People People?" � 4:29"(Set Me Free) Remotivate Me" � 4:12Track 1 was re-released on the 2- and 3-disc CD versions of Remixes 81 - 04, while track 2 only appears on the 3-disc version.[edit] 12": Sire / 0-20283 (US)"Master and Servant (US Black and Blue Mix)" � 8:02 (edited by Joseph Watt)"(Set Me Free) Remotivate Me (US 12" Mix)" � 7:59 (edited by Joseph Watt)"Are People People?" � 4:29[edit] CD: Mute / CDBong6 (UK)"Master and Servant" � 3:46"(Set Me Free) Remotivate Me" � 4:12"Master and Servant (Slavery Whip Mix)" � 9:38"(Set Me Free) Remotivate Me (Release Mix)" � 8:49"Master and Servant (Voxless)" � 4:00The CD single was released in 1991 as part of the singles box set compilationsAll songs written by Martin Gore.[edit] External linksMaster and Servant information from the official Depeche Mode web sitev ? d ? eDepeche ModeAndrew Fletcher ・  Dave Gahan ・  Martin GoreFormer members: Vince Clarke ・  Alan WilderTouring members: Christian Eigner ・  Peter GordenoStudio albumsSpeak & Spell ・ A Broken Frame ・ Construction Time Again ・ Some Great Reward ・ Black Celebration ・ Music for the Masses ・ Violator ・ Songs of Faith and Devotion ・ Ultra ・ Exciter ・ Playing the Angel ・ Sounds of the UniverseCompilationalbumsPeople Are People ・ The Singles 81→85 ・ Catching Up with Depeche Mode ・ Greatest Hits  ・ The Singles 86>98 ・ Remixes 81�04 ・ The Best of � Volume 1 ・ The Complete Depeche ModeLive albums101 ・  Songs of Faith and Devotion Live ・  Recording the Angel ・  Recording the UniverseSingles"Dreaming of Me" ・ "New Life" ・ "Just Can't Get Enough" ・ "See You" ・ "The Meaning of Love" ・ "Leave in Silence" ・ "Get the Balance Right!" ・ "Everything Counts" ・ "Love, in Itself" ・ "People Are People" ・ "Master and Servant" ・ "Blasphemous Rumours"/"Somebody" ・ "Shake the Disease" ・ "It's Called a Heart" ・ "Stripped" ・ "A Question of Lust" ・ "A Question of Time" ・ "But Not Tonight (US)" ・ "Strangelove" ・ "Never Let Me Down Again" ・ "Behind the Wheel" ・ "Little 15" ・ "Strangelove'88 (US)" ・ "Everything Counts (Live)" ・ "Personal Jesus" ・ "Enjoy the Silence" ・ "Policy of Truth" ・ "World in My Eyes" ・ "I Feel You" ・ "Walking in My Shoes" ・ "Condemnation" ・ "In Your Room" ・ "Barrel of a Gun" ・ "It's No Good" ・ "Home" ・ "Useless" ・ "Only When I Lose Myself" ・ "Dream On" ・ "I Feel Loved" ・ "Freelove" ・ "Goodnight Lovers" ・ "Enjoy the Silence 04" ・ "Precious" ・ "A Pain That I'm Used To" ・ "Suffer Well" ・ "John the Revelator"/"Lilian" ・ "Martyr" ・ "Wrong" ・ "Peace" ・ "Fragile Tension"/"Hole to Feed"VideosThe World We Live In and Live in Hamburg ・  Some Great Videos ・  Strange ・  101 ・  Strange Too ・  Devotional ・  The Videos 86>98 ・  One Night in Paris ・  Touring the Angel: Live in Milan ・  The Best of Depeche Mode VideosTours1980 Tour ・  1981 Tour ・  See You Tour ・  A Broken Frame Tour ・  Construction Time Again Tour ・  Some Great Reward Tour ・  Black Celebration Tour ・  Music for the Masses Tour ・  World Violation Tour ・  Devotional Tour ・  Exotic Tour/Summer Tour '94 ・  The Singles Tour ・  Exciter Tour ・  Touring the Angel ・  Tour of the UniverseTribute albumsI Sometimes Wish I Was Famous ・  For the Masses ・  Color Theory Presents Depeche Mode ・  Goth Electro Tribute to Depeche Mode ・  Techno Tribute to Depeche Mode ・  Electronic Tribute to Depeche Mode ・  String Quartet Tribute to Depeche Mode ・  Enjoy the Sounds (A Tribute to Depeche Mode) ・  Destruction Time Again by Louis GuidoneRelated articlesDepeche Mode discography ・  Depeche Mode videography ・  Awards and nominations ・ Mute Records (discography) ・  SynthpopRetrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_and_Servant"Categories: 1984 singles | Depeche Mode songs | Songs written by Martin GoreHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from March 2010 | All articles needing additional referencesPersonal toolsNew featuresLog in / create accountNamespacesArticleDiscussionVariantsViewsReadEditView historyActionsSearchNavigationMain pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleInteractionAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact WikipediaDonate to WikipediaHelpToolboxWhat links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkCite this pagePrint/exportCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable versionLanguagesEspa?olItalianoPolski This page was last modified on 13 May 2010 at 07:21.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;additional terms may apply.See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Contact usPrivacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimers

More articles related to the topic:

Better The World – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi

2010 July 18
Posted by xvlgi
Better The World - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Better The WorldFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation,searchBetter The World is the world’s first effortless fundraising platform that enables people to raise money for charity while surfing the Internet[1]. The platform targets Internet users who have no money to give and charity supporters who want to do more. The company is a for-profit social enterprise that gives 90% of net revenue to charity[2].After joining and creating a personal profile, members choose a charity or cause to support. Money is raised by downloading a browser sidebar [3]; which seamlessly integrates into Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox[1]. Money is raised when members view socially and environmentally conscious ads in the browser sidebar. Companies that advertise pay money according to the number of times people see the ads - the more members surf, the more money they raise for their charity.Better The World has a global, English speaking, membership base. The company has a triple bottom line focused on economic,chaussure mercurial, social and environmental responsibility [4].Contents1 Origins2 Charity Partners3 Corporate Partners4 References5 External links[edit] OriginsBetter the World originated from research on innovative online fundraising techniques and was completed by its founders while attending the Executive MBA program at the Richard Ivey School of Business at the University of Western Ontario in Canada[5]. The company is privately held, based in Toronto and was officially founded in May 2008 in Toronto, Canada. The flagship site � www.bettertheworld.com - was publicly launched February 12, 2009. On February 20,nike mercurial, 2009 Better The World became the first internationally certified B corporation and the first certified B Corporation in Canada[6]. With this designation, they join an exclusive group of 160 leading companies with a legally binding social purpose. The company is housed by incubator Idea Couture.[edit] Charity PartnersThere is no cost to Better The World’s charity partners and each partner sets specific fundraising goals, which are tracked and monitored by their supporters.Current charity partners include: Canadian Foundation for AIDS Research, Children's Miracle Network, Habitat for Humanity Toronto, Lewa Wildlife Conservancy, TakingITGlobal, United Way of Canada, 5 days for the homeless, Trickle Up, Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation, CARE (relief), War Child (charity),mercurial nike, KINSA and the World Wildlife Fund Canada.[edit] Corporate PartnersType of Ads:a. Corporate Social Responsibility Program Promotion � ads from corporations who have social responsibility programs. (eg. Volunteering programs at ABC Corporation)b. Social Products & Services - ads from corporations who have social products and services. (eg. Environmentally friendly cleaning solutions)c. Products and Services that fit with members interests - ads aligning with member’s interests (eg. National Geographic Magazine).d. Not For Profit and Innovation � Organizations that are aligned with the values of members and are providing programs or services to support those values.[7][edit] References^ a b Ode Magazine article http://www.odemagazine.com/doc/61/croth-bachman-interview/^ Milic, C. (2009, February 21)Important lessons: Socially responsible MBA graduates join the growing ranks of those giving back to community. The Toronto Star. http://www.thestar.com/article/588853^ Baker,mercurial vapor pas cher, K. (2009, February 21). Yahoo! for Google's charitable tools. Financial Post. http://www.financialpost.com/scripts/story.html?id=1313260^ Savitz, A. (2006) Triple Bottom Line. ISBN 0787979074^ Milic, C. (2009, February 21)Important lessons: Socially responsible MBA graduates join the growing ranks of those giving back to community. The Toronto Star. http://www.thestar.com/article/588853.^ B-Corporation http://www.bcorporation.net/^ www.bettertheworld.com[edit] External linksBetter The World website: http://www.bettertheworld.comIdea Couture: http://www.ideacouture.com/B-Corporation: http://www.bcorporation.net/http://www.fundraisingsuccessmag.com/article/harsh-economic-conditions-drive-innovation-charity-fundraising-now-millions-can-financially-support-charity-while-surfing-web-403114_1.htmlhttp://www.thestar.com/article/588853http://www.odemagazine.com/doc/61/croth-bachman-interview/http://www.financialpost.com/scripts/story.html?id=1313260Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Better_The_World"Categories: Social enterprisePersonal toolsNew featuresLog in / create accountNamespacesArticleDiscussionVariantsViewsReadEditView historyActionsSearchNavigationMain pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleInteractionAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact WikipediaDonate to WikipediaHelpToolboxWhat links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkCite this pagePrint/exportCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version This page was last modified on 16 June 2010 at 19:49.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;additional terms may apply.See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.,nike pas cher, a non-profit organization.Contact usPrivacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimers

More articles related to the topic:

Emu – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia_3018

2010 July 18
Posted by xvlgi
Emu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
EmuFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis is the latest accepted revision, accepted on 14 July 2010.Jump to: navigation,searchFor other uses, see Emu (disambiguation).EmuFossil range: Paleocene–presentPre??OSDCPTJKPgNPaleocene - presentConservation statusLeast Concern (IUCN 3.1)[1]Scientific classificationKingdom:AnimaliaPhylum:ChordataClass:AvesOrder:Struthioniformes (or Casuariiformes)Family:CasuariidaeGenus:DromaiusSpecies:D. novaehollandiaeBinomial nameDromaius novaehollandiae(Latham, 1790)[2]Sub-speciesD. novaehollandiae novaehollandiae (Latham, 1790)[3]D. novaehollandiae woodwardiD. novaehollandiae rothschildi?D. novaehollandiae diemenensis(Le Souef, 1907)[3]Tasmanian EmuThe Emu has been recorded in the areas shown in pink.SynonymsDromiceius novaehollandiaeThe Emu (pronounced /?i?mju?/[4][5]), Dromaius novaehollandiae, is the largest bird native to Australia and the only extant member of the genus Dromaius. It is also the second-largest extant bird in the world by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich. The soft-feathered, brown, flightless birds reach up to 2 metres (6.6 ft) in height. The Emu is common over most of mainland Australia, although it avoids heavily populated areas, dense forest, and arid areas.[2] Emus can travel great distances at a fast, economical trot and, if necessary, can sprint at 50 km/h (31 mph) for some distance at a time.[2] They are opportunistically nomadic and may travel long distances to find food; they feed on a variety of plants and insects, but have been known to go weeks without food. Emus will sit in water and are also able to swim.The Emu subspecies that previously inhabited Tasmania became extinct after the European settlement of Australia in 1788; and the distribution of the mainland subspecies has been influenced by human activities. Once common on the east coast, Emu are now uncommon; by contrast, the development of agriculture and the provision of water for stock in the interior of the continent have increased the range of the Emu in arid regions. Emus are farmed for their meat, oil, and leather.Contents1 Taxonomy and distribution1.1 Classification2 Description3 Ecology and behaviour3.1 Diet3.2 Breeding4 Relationship with humans4.1 Conservation status4.2 Economic value4.3 Attacks on humans4.4 Cultural references5 See also6 References7 External links[edit] Taxonomy and distributionPopulation and Trends[6]LocationPopulationTrendAustralia630,000 to 725,000StableTotal630,000 to 725,000StableThe Emu was first described under the name of the New Holland Cassowary in Arthur Phillip's Voyage to Botany Bay, published in 1789.[7] The species was named by ornithologist John Latham on a specimen from the Sydney, Australia area, which was referred to as New Holland at the time.[2] He collaborated on Phillip's book and provided the first descriptions of and names for many Australian bird species; its name is Latin for "fast-footed New Hollander".[8] The etymology of the common name Emu is uncertain, but is thought to have come from an Arabic word for large bird that was later used by Portuguese explorers to describe the related Cassowary in Australia and New Guinea.[9] In Victoria, some terms for the Emu were Barrimal in the Dja Dja Wurrung language, myoure in Gunai, and courn in Jardwadjali.[10] It was known as murawung or birabayin to the local Eora and Darug inhabitants of the Sydney basin.[11]In his original 1816 description of the Emu,nike shox, Vieillot used two generic names; first Dromiceius, then Dromaius a few pages later. It has been a point of contention ever since which is correct; the latter is more correctly formed, but the convention in taxonomy is that the first name given stands, unless it is clearly a typographical error.[12] Most modern publications, including those of the Australian government,[13] use Dromaius, with Dromiceius mentioned as an alternative spelling.[edit] ClassificationEmu eyes are golden brown to black. The naked skin on the neck is bluish-black.The Emu was classified in the family with their closest relatives the cassowaries in the family Casuariidae in the ratite order Struthioniformes. However an alternate classification has been recently adopted splitting the Casuariidae into their own order Casuariformes.Three different Dromaius species were common in Australia before European settlement, and one species is known from fossils. The small Emus — Dromaius baudinianus and D. ater — both became extinct shortly after; however, the Emu, D. novaehollandiae, remains common. The population varies from decade to decade, largely dependent on rainfall; it is estimated that the Emu population is 625,000–725,000, with 100,000–200,000 in Western Australia and the remainder mostly in New South Wales and Queensland.[9] D. novaehollandiae diemenensis, a subspecies known as the Tasmanian Emu, became extinct around 1865. Emus were introduced to Maria Island off Tasmania and Kangaroo Island near South Australia during the 20th century. The Kangaroo Island birds have established a breeding population there. The Maria Island population became extinct in the mid-1990s.There are three extant subspecies in Australia:In the southeast, D. novaehollandiae novaehollandiae, with its whitish ruff when breeding;In the north, D. novaehollandiae woodwardi, slender and paler; andIn the southwest, D. novaehollandiae rothschildi, darker, with no ruff during breeding.[edit] DescriptionEmus have only three toes in a tridactyl arrangement; this adaptation for running is seen in other bird species, such as bustards and quails. The Ostrich has only two toes.Emu SkeletonSeveral Emu in a Field in Eastern AustraliaAn Emu Walking, Victoria, AustraliaEmus are large birds. The largest can reach up to 150 to 190 centimetres (59–75 in) in height, 1 to 1.3 metres (3.3–4.3 ft) at the shoulder. Emus weigh between 18 and 48 kilograms (40 and 106 lb).[2][14][15]They have small vestigial wings and a long neck and legs. Their ability to run at high speeds, 48 km/h (30 mph),[2] is due to their highly specialised pelvic limb musculature. Their feet have only three toes and a similarly reduced number of bones and associated foot muscles; they are the only birds with gastrocnemius muscles in the back of the lower legs. The pelvic limb muscles of emus have a similar contribution to total body mass as the flight muscles of flying birds.[16] They have a soft bill, adapted for grazing.[2]Head and upper neckThe neck of the Emu is pale blue and shows through its sparse feathers.[2] They have brown to grey-brown plumage of shaggy appearance; the shafts and the tips of the feathers are black. Solar radiation is absorbed by the tips, and the loose-packed inner plumage insulates the skin. The resultant heat is prevented from flowing to the skin by the insulation provided by the coat,[17] allowing the bird to be active during the heat of the day. A unique feature of the Emu feather is its double rachis emerging from a single shaft. The sexes are similar in appearance.On very hot days, emus pant to maintain their body temperature, their lungs work as evaporative coolers and, unlike some other species, the resulting low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood do not appear to cause alkalosis.[18] For normal breathing in cooler weather, they have large, multifolded nasal passages. Cool air warms as it passes through into the lungs, extracting heat from the nasal region. On exhalation, the Emu's cold nasal turbinates condense moisture back out of the air and absorb it for reuse.[19]Their calls consist of loud booming, drumming, and grunting sounds that can be heard up to 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) away. The booming sound is created in an inflatable neck sac that is 30 cm (12 in) long and thin-walled.[2][9][edit] Ecology and behaviourEmus live in most habitats across Australia, although they are most common in areas of sclerophyll forest and savanna woodland, and least common in populated and very arid areas, except during wet periods.[2] Emus predominately travel in pairs,[2] and while they can form enormous flocks, this is an atypical social behaviour that arises from the common need to move towards food sources. Emus have been shown to travel long distances to reach abundant feeding areas. In Western Australia, Emu movements follow a distinct seasonal pattern — north in summer and south in winter. On the east coast their wanderings do not appear to follow a pattern.[20] Emus are also able to swim when necessary. Though an Emu will be cautious when approaching civilisation, Emus are well known for approaching small groups of humans in the wild when prompted by food, in fact, even if the food is not offered to them, they can be rather persistent in helping themselves.[edit] DietAn emu foraging in grass near a damEmus forage in a diurnal pattern. They eat a variety of native and introduced plant species; the type of plants eaten depends on seasonal availability. They also eat insects, including grasshoppers and crickets, lady birds, soldier and saltbush caterpillars, Bogong and cotton-boll moth larvae and ants.[21] In Western Australia, food preferences have been observed in travelling Emus: they eat seeds from Acacia aneura until it rains, after which they eat fresh grass shoots and caterpillars; in winter they feed on the leaves and pods of Cassia[verification needed]; in spring, they feed on grasshoppers and the fruit of Santalum acuminatum: a sort of quandong.[2][22] Emus serve as an important agent for the dispersal of large viable seeds, which contributes to floral biodiversity.[22][23]Emus also require pebbles and stones to assist in the digestion of the plant material. Individual stones may weigh 45 g (1.6 oz) and they may have as much as 745 g (1.64 lb) in their gizzard at one time. They also eat charcoal, however scientists still have not ascertained why.[2][edit] BreedingEmu EggEmu chicks have longitudinal stripes that help to camouflage them.Emus form breeding pairs during the summer months of December and January, and may remain together for about five months. Mating occurs in the cooler months of May and June. During the breeding season, males experience hormonal changes, including an increase in luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels, and their testicles double in size.[24] Males lose their appetite and construct a rough nest in a semi-sheltered hollow on the ground from bark, grass, sticks, and leaves. The pair mates every day or two,nike dunk, and every second or third day the female lays one of an average of 11 (and as many as 20) very large, thick-shelled, dark-green eggs. The number of eggs varies with rainfall.[2] The eggs are on average 134 by 89 millimetres (5.3 × 3.5 in) and weigh between 700 and 900 grams (1.5 and 2.0 lb),[25] which is roughly equivalent to 10–12 chicken eggs in volume and weight. The first verified occurrence of genetically identical avian twins was demonstrated in the Emu.[26]The male becomes broody after his mate starts laying, and begins to incubate the eggs before the laying period is complete. From this time on, he does not eat, drink, or defecate, and stands only to turn the eggs, which he does about 10 times a day. Over eight weeks of incubation,mercurial vapor, he will lose a third of his weight and will survive only on stored body-fat and on any morning dew that he can reach from the nest. As with many other Australian birds, such as the Superb Fairy-wren, infidelity is the norm for Emus, despite the initial pair-bond: once the male starts brooding, the female mates with other males and may lay in multiple clutches; thus, as many as half the chicks in a brood may be fathered by others, or by neither parent as Emus also exhibit brood parasitism.[27] Some females stay and defend the nest until the chicks start hatching, but most leave the nesting area completely to nest again; in a good season, a female Emu may nest three times.[20]Incubation takes 56 days, and the male stops incubating the eggs shortly before they hatch.[20] Newly hatched chicks are active and can leave the nest within a few days. They stand about 12 centimetres (5 in) tall, weigh .5 kg (18 oz),[2] and have distinctive brown and cream stripes for camouflage, which fade after three months or so. The male stays with the growing chicks for up to 7 months, defending them and teaching them how to find food.[2][25] Chicks grow very quickly and are full-grown in 5–6 months;[2] they may remain with their family group for another six months or so before they split up to breed in their second season. In the wild, Emus live between 10 to 20 years;[28] captive birds can live longer than those in the wild.[edit] Relationship with humans[edit] Conservation statusAboriginal Emu caller, used to arouse the curiosity of Emus.Thargomindah, SW QueenslandEmus were used as a source of food by indigenous Australians and early European settlers. Aborigines used a variety of techniques to catch the bird, including spearing them while they drank at waterholes, poisoning waterholes, catching Emus in nets, and attracting Emus by imitating their calls or with a ball of feathers and rags dangled from a tree.[25] Europeans killed Emus to provide food and to remove them if they interfered with farming or invaded settlements in search of water during drought. An extreme example of this was the Emu War in Western Australia in 1932, when Emus that flocked to Campion during a hot summer scared the town’s inhabitants and an unsuccessful attempt to drive them off was mounted. In John Gould's Handbook to the Birds of Australia, first published in 1865, he laments the loss of the Emu from Tasmania, where it had become rare and has since become extinct; he notes that Emus were no longer common in the vicinity of Sydney and proposes that the species be given protected status.[7] Wild Emus are formally protected in Australia under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The IUCN rates their status as Least Concern.[1] Their occurrence range is between 1,000,000–10,000,000 km2 (390,000–3,900,000 sq mi), and a 1992 population estimate was between 630,000 and 730,000.[29]Although the population of Emus on mainland Australia is thought to be higher now than before European settlement,[9] some wild populations are at risk of local extinction due to small population size. Threats to small populations include the clearance and fragmentation of areas of habitat; deliberate slaughter; collisions with vehicles; and predation of the young and eggs by foxes, feral and domestic dogs, and feral pigs. The isolated Emu population of the New South Wales North Coast Bioregion and Port Stephens is listed as endangered by the New South Wales Government.[30][edit] Economic valueThe Emu was an important source of meat to the Aborigines in the areas to which it was endemic. Emu fat was used as bush medicine, and was rubbed on the skin. It also served as a valuable lubricant. It was mixed with ochre to make the traditional paint for ceremonial body adornment, as well as to oil wooden tools and utensils such as the coolamon.[31]An example of how the Emu was cooked comes from the Arrernte of Central Australia who call it Kere ankerre:"Emus are around all the time, in green times and dry times. You pluck the feathers out first, then pull out the crop from the stomach, and put in the feathers you've pulled out, and then singe it on the fire. You wrap the milk guts that you've pulled out into something [such as] gum leaves and cook them. When you've got the fat off, you cut the meat up and cook it on fire made from river red gum wood."[32]Farmed Emu at Virginia's Emu Marketing Cooperative near Warrenton, Virginia, USCommercial Emu farming started in Western Australia in 1987 and the first slaughtering occurred in 1990.[33] In Australia, the commercial industry is based on stock bred in captivity and all states except Tasmania have licensing requirements to protect wild Emus. Outside Australia, Emus are farmed on a large scale in North America, with about 1 million birds in the US,[34] Peru, and China, and to a lesser extent in some other countries. Emus breed well in captivity, and are kept in large open pens to avoid leg and digestive problems that arise with inactivity. They are typically fed on grain supplemented by grazing, and are slaughtered at 50–70 weeks of age. They eat two times a day and prefer 2.25 kilograms (5 lb) of leaves each meal.Emus are farmed primarily for their meat, leather, and oil. Emu meat is a low-fat meat (less than 1.5% fat), and with cholesterol at 85 mg/100 g, it is comparable to other lean meats. Most of the usable portions (the best cuts come from the thigh and the larger muscles of the drum or lower leg) are, like other poultry, dark meat; Emu meat is considered for cooking purposes by the USDA to be a red meat because its red colour and pH value approximate that of beef,[34][35] but for inspection purposes it is considered poultry. Emu fat is rendered to produce oil for cosmetics, dietary supplements, and therapeutic products. There is some evidence that the oil has anti-inflammatory properties;[36] however, the US Food and Drug Administration regards pure Emu oil product as an unapproved drug. Emu leather has a distinctive patterned surface, due to a raised area around the feather follicles in the skin; the leather is used in such small items as wallets and shoes, often in combination with other leathers. The feathers and eggs are used in decorative arts and crafts.[edit] Attacks on humansEmu attacks in Australia are rare but have occurred. When attacked, the emu will move in a zigzag pattern to prevent attacks from the wedge tailed eagle, or use kicking at close range.[37] In 1932 many emus moved into farm territory in Western Australia, with the army called in to dispatch them in the so-called Emu War. There have been two documented cases of humans being attacked by Emus.[38][39][edit] Cultural referencesNew South Wales 100th Anniversary stampThe Emu has a prominent place in Australian Aboriginal mythology, including a creation myth of the Yuwaalaraay and other groups in NSW who say that the sun was made by throwing an Emu's egg into the sky; the bird features in numerous aetiological stories told across a number of Aboriginal groups.[40] The Kurdaitcha man of Central Australia is said to wear sandals made of Emu feathers to mask his footprints. Many Aboriginal language groups throughout Australia have a tradition[41] that the dark dust lanes in the Milky Way represent a giant emu. Several of the Sydney rock engravings depict an Emu.The Emu is popularly but unofficially considered as a faunal emblem—the national bird of Australia.[42] It appears as a shield bearer on the Coat of arms of Australia with the Red Kangaroo and as a part of the Arms also appears on the Australian 50 cent coin. It has featured on numerous Australian postage stamps, including a pre-federation New South Wales 100th Anniversary issue from 1888, which featured a 2 pence blue Emu stamp, a 36 cent stamp released in 1986, and a $1.35 stamp released in 1994. The hats of the Australian Light Horse are famously decorated with an Emu feather plume.There are around 600 gazetted places named after the Emu in Australia, including mountains, lakes, creeks, and towns.[43] During the 19th and 20th centuries, many Australian companies and household products were named after the bird; for example, in Western Australia, Emu branded beer has been produced since the early 20th century. The Swan Brewery continues to produce a range of Emu branded beers. Emu - Austral Ornithology is the quarterly peer-reviewed publication of the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, also known as Birds Australia.[edit] See alsoBirds of AustraliaFauna of Australia[edit] References^ a b BirdLife International (2008). Dromaius novaehollandiae. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 05 November 2008. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Davies, S.J.J.F. (2003). "Emus". in Hutchins, Michael. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8 Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins (2 ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. pp. 83–87. ISBN 0 7876 5784 0. ^ a b * Brands, Sheila (August 14, 2008). "Systema Naturae 2000 / Classification, Dromaius novaehollandiae". Project: The Taxonomicon. http://www.taxonomy.nl/Main/Classification/51354.htm. Retrieved Feb 04 2009. ^ Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary^ American Heritage Dictionary^ BirdLife International (2008)(a)^ a b Gould, J. 1865. Handbook to the Birds of Australia Volume 2. Reprinted in 1972 by Landsdowne Press^ Gotch, A.F. (1995) [1979]. "16". Latin Names Explained. A Guide to the Scientific Classifications of Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. London: Facts on File. p. 179. ISBN 0 8160 3377 3. ^ a b c d Australian Museum. 2001. Emu Dromaius novaehollandiae^ Wesson, Sue C. (2001) (PDF). Aboriginal flora and fauna names of Victoria: As extracted from early surveyors' reports. Melbourne: Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages. http://www.vaclang.org.au/admin/file/content9/c7/ff.pdf. Retrieved 2006-11-11. ^ Troy, Jakelin (1993). The Sydney language. Canberra: Jakelin Troy. p. 54. ISBN 0-646-11015-2. ^ http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Auk/v044n04/p0592-p0593.pdf^ "Australian Faunal Directory - Redirect to new Environment Site". Deh.gov.au. http://www.deh.gov.au/cgi-bin/abrs/fauna/details.pl?pstrVol=AVES;pstrTaxa=7787;pstrChecklistMode=2. Retrieved 2008-11-03. ^ "ADW: Dromaius novaehollandiae: Information". Animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Dromaius_novaehollandiae.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. ^ "Commercial Emu and Ostrich rearing". Poulvet.com. http://www.poulvet.com/poultry/articles/emu_rearing.php. Retrieved 2008-11-03. ^ Patak,chaussure mercurial, A. E. and Baldwin, J. 1998 Pelvic limb musculature in the Emu Dromaius novaehollandiae (Aves : Struthioniformes: Dromaiidae): Adaptations to high-speed running. Journal of Morphology 238:23–37 PMID 9768501^ Maloney, S. K. and Dawson,nike mercurial vapor, T. J. 1995. The heat load from solar radiation on a large, diurnally active bird, the Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Journal of Thermal Biology 20:381–87^ Maloney, S.K. and Dawson, T.J. 1994. Thermoregulation in a large bird, the Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. B, Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology. 164:464–72^ Maloney, S.K. and Dawson, T.J. 1998. Ventilatory accommodation of oxygen demand and respiratory water loss in a large bird, the Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), and a re-examination of ventilatory allometry for birds. Physiological Zoology 71:712–19^ a b c Davies, S. J. J. F. 1976. The natural history of the Emu in comparison with that of other ratites. In Proceedings of the 16th international ornithological congress, H.J. Firth and J. H. Calaby eds. Australian Academy of Science, p. 109–20 ISBN 0-85847-038-1^ Barker, R. D. and Vertjens, W. J. M. The Food of Australian Birds 1 Non-Passerines. CSIRO Australia ISBN 0-643-05007-8^ a b Robert Powell (1990). Leaf and Branch. Department of Conservation and Land Management. p. 197. "Quandong's fruits are an important food for the emu. ...major dispersers..." ^ McGrath, R. J. and Bass, D. 1999. Seed dispersal by Emus on the New South Wales north-east coast. EMU 99: 248–52^ Malecki I. A. et al. 1998. Endocrine and testicular changes in a short-day seasonally breeding bird, the Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), in southwestern Australia. Animal Reproduction Sciences 53:143–55 PMID 9835373^ a b c Reader's Digest Complete Book of Australian Birds. Reader's Digest Services ISBN 0-909486-63-8^ Bassett, S. M. et al. 1999. Genetically identical avian twins. Journal of Zoology 247: 475–78^ Taylor, E. L. et al. 2000. Genetic evidence for mixed parentage in nests of the Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 47:359–64^ Parks Victoria. Emu^ * BirdLife International (2008(a)). "Emu - BirdLife Species Factsheet". Data Zone. http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=7&m=1. Retrieved 06 Feb 2009. ^ Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) Emu population in the NSW North Coast Bioregion and Port Stephens LGA - profile^ South Australia Memory^ Turner, Margaret-Mary, Arrernte Foods: Foods from Central Australia, IAD Press, Alice Springs, 1994, ISBN 0-949659-76-2 p47^ O'Malley, P. 1997. Emu Farming in The New Rural Industries. Rural Industries Research & Development Corporation^ a b USDA. Ratites (Emu, Ostrich, and Rhea)^ USDA. 2005. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18 Emu, full rump, raw^ Yoganathan, S. et al. 2003. Antagonism of croton oil inflammation by topical Emu oil in CD-1 mice. Lipids 38:603–07. PMID 12934669^ The Emu NSW government^ Attacked by an emu The Argus 10 August 1904^ Victoria, from Geelong Advertiser The Mercury 24 March 1873^ Dixon, R. B. 1916. Oceanic Mythology Part V. Australia^ Norris, R & C, 2009, Emu Dreaming: An Introduction to Aboriginal Astronomy [1]^ Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Australia's Coat of Arms^ Geoscience Australia. 2004. Gazetteer of Australia[edit] External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to: Dromaius novaehollandiaeWikispecies has information related to: EmuListen to this article (info/dl)This audio file was created from a revision of Emu dated 2006-08-07, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)More spoken articlesEmu chicks emerging, article with sound clips, photos and videos."Kangaroo feathers" and the Australian Light Horse from the Australian War MemorialEmu videos, photos & sounds on the Internet Bird CollectionA discussion of Emu eggs and how to cook themRetrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emu"Categories: IUCN Red List least concern species | Featured articles | Birds of South Australia | Birds of Tasmania | Birds of Western Australia | Bushfood | Casuariidae | Dromaius | Flightless birds | Heraldic birds | Megafauna of Australia | National symbols of Australia | Ratites | Monotypic bird genera | Animals described in 1790Hidden categories: Wikipedia protected pages without expiry | Wikipedia pending changes protected pages | Articles with 'species' microformats | All pages needing factual verification | Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from December 2007 | Spoken articles | Articles with hAudio microformatsPersonal toolsNew featuresLog in / create accountNamespacesArticleDiscussionVariantsViewsReadEditView historyActionsSearchNavigationMain pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleInteractionAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact WikipediaDonate to WikipediaHelpToolboxWhat links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkCite this pagePrint/exportCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable versionLanguages?????BosanskiBrezhonegБългарскиCatalà?eskyDanskDeutschDiné bizaadEestiEspa?olEsperantoFran?aisGaeilge??????????HrvatskiIdoBahasa IndonesiaItaliano?????????????????Latvie?uLietuvi?Magyar??????Bahasa MelayuNederlands日本語?Norsk (bokm?l)??Norsk (nynorsk)?PolskiPortuguêsРусскийSimple EnglishSloven?inaSloven??inaСрпски / SrpskiSuomiSvenskaTagalog??????Укра?нськаUyghurche? / ????????Ti?ng Vi?t中文 This page was last modified on 14 July 2010 at 03:45.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;additional terms may apply.See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Contact usPrivacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimers

More articles related to the topic:

QI (G series) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia_1

2010 July 18
Posted by xvlgi
QI (G series) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
QI (G series)From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation,searchThis article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles and using this article for a summary of the key points of the subject. (March 2010)This article may have too many links, and could require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Per the Wikipedia style guidelines, please remove duplicate links, and any links that are not relevant to the context. (March 2010)QI Series GCountry of originUKNetworkBBCOriginal run26 November 2009 – 16 April 2010No. of episodes18Previous seriesSeries FNext seriesSeries HThis is a list of episodes of QI, the BBC comedy panel game television programme hosted by Stephen Fry. Series G was the first in the show's history to be aired in its entirety on BBC One, beginning its run on 26 November 2009.The first series started on 11 September 2003. Although not mentioned at the time, all of the questions (with the exception of the final "general ignorance" round) were on subjects beginning with "a" (such as "arthropods", "Alans" and "astronomy"). The following six series continued the theme: the second series' subjects all began with "b", and so on.Contents1 G Series (2009–2010)1.1 Episode 1 "Gardens"1.2 Episode 2 "Ganimals"1.3 Episode 3 "Games"1.4 Episode 4 "Geography"1.5 Episode 5 "Groovy" (Christmas Special)1.6 Episode 6 "Genius"1.7 Episode 7 "Girls and Boys"1.8 Episode 8 "Germany"1.9 Episode 9 "Gallimaufrey"1.10 Episode 10 "Greats"1.11 Episode 11 "Gifts"1.12 Episode 12 "Gravity"1.13 Episode 13 "Gothic"1.14 Episode 14 "Greeks"1.15 Episode 15 "Green"1.16 Episode 16 "Geometry"1.17 Episode 17 "Compilation Part 1"1.18 Episode 18 "Compilation Part 2"2 References[edit] G Series (2009–2010)Series G featured a total of 16 editions, plus an extra two compilation episodes, making it the longest series yet,[1] and was the first to be broadcast in its entirety on BBC One. As with the previous series, extended "XL" editions are also being shown on BBC Two soon after the normal broadcast. Because of scheduling issues, this only began with the fourth episode. The first episode had an "XL" edition aired some time after the original edition. Episodes 2, 3, 15 and 16 currently have no scheduled "XL" editions. It is not known when they will be aired.Nine new guests appeared in this series; Jack Dee, John Hodgman, Barry Humphries, Lee Mack, Graham Norton, Sue Perkins, Jan Ravens, David Tennant and Sandi Toksvig. Another significant first is that episode 2 featured four guests instead of the usual three (with regular Alan Davies also present).Accompanying the recordings was a little game Stephen Fry had set up for his Twitter followers. The object was to decipher a word the audience had shouted. The response for "glabrous" was so overwhelming that it made Twitter's Trending Topics list on 9 May 2009.[citation needed]In Australia, this series being currently broadcast on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation flagship network, ABC1, on Tuesday nights, and then placed on iView, the ABC's online viewing site after the airing, expiring after 2 weeks.[edit] Episode 1 "Gardens"Broadcast date26 November 200920 March 2010 (XL edition)Recording date11 June 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (?8 points)Rob Brydon (?6 points) 7th appearanceDavid Mitchell (Joint winner with 3 points) 8th appearanceDara ó Briain (Joint winner with 3 points) 8th appearanceBuzzersRob – A bell tinklingDara – A cash register kerchingDavid – A shop bell ringingAlan – A Cockney market trader shouting out "Pound a punnet! Go on, I've gotta couple of juicy ones here!"ThemeAs part of the "Gardens" theme, the set was decorated with trees and the inner part of the QI magnifying glass became a garden with flowers in it.TopicsThe tools required for do nothing gardening (otherwise known as natural gardening or natural farming) are animals. Examples include using ducks for paddy fields, rather than herbicide, and using carp to purify water.The panellists are given four tools, donated to them by the Garden Museum, that were used by gentleman gardeners in the 18th & 19th century.Alan's was a walking stick which contained a hidden saw blade, which would be used by people to cut stray trees.David's was a hoe that when you put a leather cap on made it look like a walking stick, and when you took the cap off the hoe could be used to remove obstructive weeds.Rob's was a glass bottle that was used to grow straight, uniformly shaped cucumbers, by forcing the cucumber to grow in the shape of the bottle. It was invented by George Stephenson, the inventor of the Rocket locomotive.Dara's was a sort of seed shaker, out of which seeds would be dispersed through the different sized holes.The best place in the world to discover an entirely new species is your own garden (forfeit: the rainforest). In 1971, a biologist called Jennifer Owen conducted a study in her suburban house in Leicester and discovered 533 species of ichneumon wasp in her back garden, of which 15 were new to Britain and 4 were new to science. The naturalist Gilbert White said that "nature is so full and varied that if you want to find the place with the most variety, it's the place you most study".Tangent: When catching wasps, Rob uses a jam jar filled with jam, so that the wasps get stuck and can't get out again.Tangent: If a bee is dying, you should give it honey, as that's the only thing it can eat, but Dara prefers to use the sole of his shoe rather than rescue it. A bee makes enough honey in its lifetime to fill one teaspoon. Alan claims that bees can't drown.The vegetarian spiritualist Charles Isham believed that real gnomes would be attracted to Garden gnomes. Isham first brought them into Britain in 1847. He wanted to try to commune with real gnomes by claiming that "seeing and hearing gnomes is not mental delusion, but extension of faculty". Isham made 21 gnomes, of which only 1 still exists today and has been insured for £1 million. The red cap worn by all garden gnomes derived from German miners, as they wore red caps. (Forfeit: Phwoarr! (said when a bikini-clad gnome was displayed))Tangent: In Wast Water in the English Lake District, there were some gnomes put at 48 metres deep for divers to look at; but 3 divers drowned while trying to look at them, so the gnomes were taken away by the police. Oddly, when the gnomes were moved to a depth of 50 metres, the police didn't take them away, because health and safety rules say that the police divers can't go that deep, hence they couldn't take them away. The original idea was just to have gnomes in the lake for people to look at, as it was said to be dull.Tangent: In Leicester, there is an old quarry, which an aeroplane and a bus have been put in for people to look at. In Scapa Flow, there is a massive German fleet, dating from World War I. It's there because the Germans, required by the Armistice terms to surrender it, scuttled it instead. The French Fleet was sunk by the British in World War II, to the annoyance of Charles de Gaulle, so that the defeated French couldn't hand it over to the Nazis. It was sunk at Mers-el-Kébir, in Morocco.American farmers hate William Shakespeare because of a drug manufacturer called Eugene Schieffelin, who suggested that every species of bird named in Shakespeare's works should be represented in America. The only bird species that wasn't already there was the starling, so he released 100 into Central Park, and in consequence there are now 200 million in North America. The main problem with the starlings is that they befoul everything that they don't eat, so they have become a major pest in America.Tangent: Starlings come to Brighton in flocks of up to 1 million birds, some even coming from as far away as Germany and Poland.The Grocers' apostrophe is a term used to describe somewhere where apostrophes shouldn't be, such as "potato's". Societies have even been set up to protect the apostrophe, and in Dublin there is even a grocer's spelt "GROCER,S". This led to a discussion about sign writers, and how they spell "accommodation". The Grocers' apostrophe has been ridiculed since the 18th century, when the Oxford Companion to the English Language said "there was never a golden age in which the rules for the use of the possessive apostrophe were clear-cut and known, understood and followed by most educated people". Places like Birmingham, England have now abolished the apostrophe.Tangent: There are only 5 places in America which have an apostrophe in their name. They are Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts; Ike's Point, New Jersey; John E's Pond, Rhode Island; Carlos Elmer's Joshua View, Arizona; and Clark's Mountain, Oregon.The way to distinguish between an apple and a pear without tasting or cutting open either of them, is to put them in water to see if they float. Apples float, hence the pastime of bobbing for apples, whereas Pears sink because they are denser. The oldest variety of apple is called a Pearmain.General IgnoranceThe carbon which makes up the wood in a tree comes from the air (forfeit: earth). It was previously thought that trees took it in as a nutrient from the soil, but in actuality it's mainly absorbed from the carbon dioxide in the air.Australian spiders remain dangerous. Although no one there has died from a spider's bite since 1981, when antivenoms were introduced, a number of fatalities have resulted from road traffic accidents caused by redback spiders and Australian funnel-web spiders dropping out of such things as sun visors in cars during journeys.[edit] Episode 2 "Ganimals"Broadcast date3 December 2009Recording date8 May 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (?4 points)Bill Bailey (?7 points) 16th appearanceJohn Hodgman (Winner with unknown score) 1st appearanceSean Lock (?7 points) 18th appearanceSandi Toksvig (?3 points) 1st appearanceBuzzersBill – An ape screechingSean – A chimpanzee screamingSandi – A parrot screechingAlan – A dog yappingJohn (who has no buzzer) – Blowing a duck whistleTopicsIn the book, Gargantua by Rabelais, it is suggested that a goose would be a good alternative to toilet paper. The quote actually said, "I have, by a long and curious experience found out a means to wipe my bum. The most lordly, the most excellent and the most convenient that was ever seen. I wipe my tail with a hen, with a cock, with a pullet, with a calf's skin, with a hare, with a pigeon, with a cormorant, with an attorney's bag, with a montero, with a falconer's lure. But to conclude, I say and maintain, that of all the torcheculs, arsewisps, bumfodders, tail napkins, bunghole cleansers and wipe breeches, there is none in the world comparable to the neck of a goose, that is well-downed, if you hold her head betwixt your legs. And, believe me, therein upon my honour, for you will thereby feel in your nockhole, a most wonderful pleasure, where in regard of the softness of the said down and of the temperate heat of the goose which is easily communicated to the bum-gut and the rest of the inwards, insofar as to come even to the regions of the heart and brains."Tangent: Alan suggested that a hedgehog might be a good alternative as you could use both sides to clean out the bum.Tangent: Other uses of a goose include the use of goose fat for making roast potatoes, and for people to cover themselves with in order to swim the English Channel, as David Walliams in fact did. It's not used much for that any more, because it causes people to slip out of the grasp of the lifeboat crew when being rescued. Geese are also reputed to be better watchdogs than dogs. They were also used as chimney sweeps.Tangent: It was reputed that at the Nottingham Goose Fair the legendary Robin Hood used goose feathers for his arrows. The Bar-headed Goose can travel unbelievable distances: they increase their range by 70% by making a V-shape which reduces wind shear, by controlling the air vortices, which makes the air less difficult for those birds flying behind the leader to fly through.The reason why giraffes have long necks is so they can fight other giraffes (forfeit: to reach tree tops). Giraffes have short necks in comparison to their legs: whereas animals such as deer can drink by just dipping their head to take a sip, giraffes have to mount an unbalanced position with their legs because of their long neck. But a single swipe with the neck can kill a rival giraffe. They don't use them to reach the tree tops, as they have to bend their necks in order to eat. It used to be believed that giraffes were solitary; but in actuality they were in widely spaced groups, just close enough to see each other. At birth a baby giraffe comes out head first, and is 6 feet tall. The staple diet of the giraffe is the acacia plant, which tries to avoid being eaten by giraffes by having a bitter taste and by warning its neighbours when giraffes are coming, giving off a chemical signal known as the wind-borne warning burst.The commonest form of death for mountain goats is falling off mountains. Despite being nimble, secure and sure-footed, they tend to fight with each other 3 to 4 times an hour. It is said that female goats get sexually aroused by the sweat of a human, because it has a similar goaty smell.Tangent: Sean tells of the time when he was a lonely goatherd.In World War I, seagulls were trained to identify the periscopes of submarines and crap on them, to blind the lens. The training involved placing food on British submarines, so the seagulls would come to recognise a submarine. Then when sighting a submarine, they would tend to associate the submarine with food, and hence perch on its periscope and coat it in droppings. This failed because the birds couldn't distinguish between British submarines and enemy submarines. It was also an ornithological mistake to refer to them as seagulls, as they are in fact simply gulls: they are not seabirds, but land birds. Although they do live mainly on cliffs, they don't go far out to sea, so would be of little use against a submarine unless it was very close inshore.Tangent: In World War II, parrots were kept in the Eiffel Tower to warn when enemy aircraft were approaching.Camels blow out their soft palate, known as the palatinus diverticulus or gula to attract females. The camels with the most testosterone have the biggest gulas. In Saudi Arabia, the gulas are cut out to make the camels better at camel racing. Interestingly, Saudi Arabia imports its camels from Australia, because they're good to eat. They also import sand from Australia, because it's the right sand for building.Goldfish don't swim into the side of their bowls because they can tell the water pressure with their pressure sensors, similar to what humans have in their ears. They activate little gelatinous caps which activate little hairs, which like the cochlear fluid we have, are used to tell the pressure.Tangent: Sharks also have neuromasts known as the Ampules of Lorenzini, but they detect electricity, because a lot of fish give off electricity as a weapon.General IgnoranceThere are no insects in the sea because there are no trees or flowering plants there: nothing they have evolved to deal with exists in the sea. There are insects in rivers despite the saltwater. There are also saltwater spiders and sea spiders, but they aren't insects: they can survive in the sea because they can hunt.The Russian Army (forfeit: geese, the Nazis) goose-stepped across Europe in the 1940s. The Nazis stopped goose-stepping (known to them as the Stechschritt) in the 1930s: they only used it during the Nuremberg rallies, and it fell out of fashion; no new recruits were asked to do it. Only the armies of North Korea, Russia, China, Cuba, Vietnam, Chile and Iran used it thereafter.[edit] Episode 3 "Games"Broadcast date10 December 2009Recording date15 May 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (?17 points)Phill Jupitus (2 points) 19th appearanceSean Lock (?7 points) 19th appearanceLiza Tarbuck (Winner with 5 points) 2nd appearanceBuzzersPhill – An impression of John Anderson saying "Gladiators ready!"Sean – An American sports-style buzzerLiza – Football crowd cheering with commentator shouting "Goal!"Alan – An impression of Bruce Forsyth saying "Good game, good game."ThemeEach panellist is given a Bang! gun during the first question.TopicsAlan, Phill and Sean are in love with Liza. To settle the matter, they are to have a truel (a three-way duel). Sean hits the target 90% of the time, Phill 60% of the time, and Alan only 10% of the time. Alan is to shoot first, but everyone only has one bullet. His best strategy is to deliberately miss (forfeits: shoot myself; shoot Liza), because then the next man to fire would aim at the other opponent, who is the better shot. This is an example of game theory, a concept devised by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern, but also by Nobel Prize winner John Forbes Nash, Jr., the man portrayed by Russell Crowe in the film A Beautiful Mind. The theory has been applied to business and economics; for example, in tobacco advertising the manufacturers were wasting money trying to persuade more people to buy their tobacco: when such advertising was banned they suddenly found themselves saving money, without losing any market share. Another example was in the tv show Big Brother, when the two finalists were asked if they wanted to share the £50,000 prize money, or not. If both choose "share", they get £25,000 each; if one says "I'll take the lot" and the other says "share", the person who said "I'll take the lot" would get the lot; but if they both say "I'll take the lot", both get nothing. The best option there is to say "share". In the end, both shared.The game in which all players traditionally end up being thrown into a lake of fiery sulphur is the ouija board. In 1972 it was more popular than Monopoly, but by the end of that year it had gone out of fashion because of the film The Exorcist. Interestingly, the name "ouija" still belongs to Parker Brothers as a proprietary name. The origin of the name is unknown, but is believed to be the French and German for "yes" ("Oui" and "Ja"). Originally, the idea of the game had nothing to do with dead people, but was an attempt to connect with the subconscious: the part of one's mind which controls Automatic writing. Only one-third of people nowadays use the ouija board to contact the dead. During World War I, it was used to give messages to troops abroad. The part about sulphur derives from the Book of Revelations in the Bible.Tangent: In the 1990s a British court dismissed a jury, because it used a ouija board to contact the dead person in the case. It is claimed that the dead person told them that the accused man was guilty; but the jury was dismissed because this hadn't been done in the jury room: oddly enough, if it had been, the judge could not have dismissed them, as he has no right to know what transpires in the jury room. The accused was eventually found guilty after a re-trial.Tangent: There is an Elvis Presley séance website which says, "If you wish to repeat this experiment, please be considerate. Many people want to contact Elvis, and we're sure he's quite busy. Please treat this information as you would if he were alive, and you had his e-mail address, with respect".During World War II, the "Scallywags" were the Home Guard. The word "scallywag" actually referred to them being assassins: they were trained in assassination techniques in case of a German invasion of Britain. They were to be a guerilla force, who weren't mainstream military, including clergymen and doctors, who were secretly given training, money, supply dumps, ammunition, and a gallon of rum. Their job was to kill Germans and also make sure that Winston Churchill wasn't removed, as it was believed that someone like Lord Halifax might try to take over. Amongst the "Scallywags" were Michael Foot, George Orwell and J. B. Priestley. They were trained to kill anyone who collaborated with the Nazis. Foot once said that he'd have killed Lord Halifax. They only had 2 weeks worth of food rations, as it was believed they wouldn't survive any longer, as they were basically terrorist suicide squads. Their motto was "Terror By Night".Tangent: Boy Scouts at ages 12 to 14 were taught at Osterley Park (where the Home Guard trained) how to decapitate motorists using a taut wire stretched across a road. British roller skating champion Harry Lee also taught them how to knee someone in the groin while using roller skates.The toughest vegetarians in history were the gladiators, although they were actually vegans. A mass grave of gladiators was found in Ephesus, which gave all indications that they didn't eat meat. They were known as barleymen: from "horeardii", meaning "eaters of barley". It was believed they ate barley and beans and dry ash, but they needed to be fat. Scientists could work out that they were vegetarians because of low zinc levels. The bulls are the strongest animal vegetarians, but almost every animal is a vegetarian. Adolf Hitler wasn't a vegetarian, although he did smoke and drink, but not very much.Tangent: Discussion of how people perceive scientists as being arrogant, despite religionists never being able to say "I don't know", whereas "we just don't know" is the default position of a scientist until something can be proven.The panellists were shown a picture of a white gondola floating on water, and asked where the picture was taken. The answer was Las Vegas, because since 1633 all Venice gondolas have to be black. They can have ornaments and bling on them, but have to be black.The easiest way to win money in a Las Vegas casino is by card counting while playing blackjack. It was originally used by the MIT Blackjack Team, who used the skill to win money. It's not illegal, just a method of playing the game very well. Since it's become more common, casinos have introduced a facial recognition system to identify card counters, so that any time they go into a casino anywhere in the world they're instantly recognised because of these countermeasures. Card counting was devised by Ben Campbell, who decided the best way was to divide into teams to do the counting. He also tried to do this with roulette.In poker, the easiest way to tell if someone is bluffing is to try to spot their tell, which normally involves blinking. Gamblers usually try double-bluffing to phase an opponent.General IgnoranceGreyhounds are actually blue in colour, not grey. The word "greyhound" is derived from "grighound", which means a "bitch hound". Greyhound racing is the second most popular spectator sport in the UK, after football: £2.5 billion is wagered on the sport every year. The hare in greyhound racing can go up to 100 mph.Tangent: Kenneth Gandar-Dower once tried to see who would win in a race between a cheetah and a greyhound. The cheetah was uninterested and refused to race.Mussels which don't open are safe to eat. A cookery writer called Jane Grigson wrote a book on seafood in which she created the myth that you should throw them away if they don't open, and by the 1990s ninety percent of cookbooks contained this myth, but it isn't correct. The Australian Seafood Commission claims you should only cook ones that are shut, and should throw away ones which are open because they'll be dead.At the beginning of tournaments, Roman gladiators never said anything. (Forfeit: "We who are about to die salute you.") Only prisoners of the Emperor Claudius were believed to say "We who are about to die salute you".[edit] Episode 4 "Geography"Broadcast date17 December 200923 December 2009 (XL edition)14 April 2010 (ABC1 airing/iView upload)Recording date14 May 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (Winner with ?7 points) 8th winJo Brand (?10 points) 22nd appearanceRob Brydon (?28 points) 8th appearanceJimmy Carr (?21 points) 13th appearanceBuzzersJimmy – A thunder clapRob – A ship's hornJo – An air raid sirenAlan – A mock shipping forecast, with several sea-faring related puns on Alan's status as the show's resident 'dunce' – (the voice reading it is recognisable as that of John Lloyd, creator of QI)TopicsSat-navs ruin nearly 300,000 British road journeys every year: in that 300,000 insurance claims are made which are blamed on faulty sat-navs. People who have done sat-nav voices include John Cleese, Joanna Lumley and Julian Clary (Clary's is advertised as "with free Dale Winton voice and alerts"). Alan Davies did the voice for his own sat-nav, which left his wife less than impressed. The favourites are Nigella Lawson, Billy Connolly and Julie Walters. The least favourite are Simon Cowell, Catherine Tate and Baroness Thatcher. The worst case of a sat-nav going wrong was when a Syrian lorry driver who was taking luxury cars from Turkey to Gibraltar got directed to Grimsby, because there is a Gibraltar Point nearby: so he was misdirected by 1,600 miles. He was stopped just before driving into the North Sea. According to RoSPA, a quarter of all road accidents are down to driver distraction; and in this respect accidents due to mobile phones and sat-navs are about equal. (Forfeit: "Are we nearly there yet?"[clarification needed])Tangent: Jimmy's girlfriend once said: "Where would we be without sat-navs?"Tangent: Some musicians had to be rescued by a helicopter, because their pink Mercedes-Benz van was directing them through a ford.Tangent: Jimmy has the idea of printing out the information from a sat-nav and make it into a book, which Stephen terms a "satlas".Tangent: Rob's irritation with sat-navs when they interrupt the radio leads to Rob doing his impression of a man who is trapped in a small box, followed later by his impression of a "Welsh attitude sat-nav".Genghis Khan is buried next to a baby camel. According to Mongolian tradition the burial place of any great ruler had to be anonymous. According to Marco Polo, 20,000 people were executed to keep the Khan's burial place secret, including all the slaves who excavated the grave and all the soldiers who killed the slaves; but this led to a problem, since it would have eventually led to everyone who was alive being killed. So, since they realised that camels have long memories, they took a suckling baby camel and killed it in front of its mother at the place where Genghis Khan was going to be buried, then they took the mother away. Every year the camel would go back to the grave, because that was where her baby died. Then when the camel died, no-one knew where he was buried.Tangent: Genghis Khan was married 500 times. It is said that 8% of all males in Central Asia are related to a common ancestor from around 1,000 years ago and this ancestor may be Genghis Khan.The invention of the teacup changed the course of Chinese history: because it was invented so early, the Chinese never invented glass. For instance, the Chinese never drank wine; but Europeans did, and liked to drink it from glass vessels. The invention of glass meant Europeans also had the technology of lens grinding, telescopes and microscopes; and the invention of spectacles meant that intellectuals and scientists had an extra 15 to 20 years of reading and an active lifestyle; and the invention of beakers, flasks and retorts was useful because glass is chemically neutral. But between the 14th century and the 19th century no glass was made in China, which also meant they had no mirrors and that their windows were made of paper, so they had dark houses. Simply because they liked drinking tea from the teacup, they never bothered to invent glass.The best place to view Wyld's Globe was from the inside. In 1851, James Wyld installed a 60-foot high scale model of the Earth in the middle of London. It included all the land masses and all the seas and mountains, built to scale. It was situated in Leicester Square between 1851 and 1862. One visitor said, "I visited it several times, and I never met with any one who was not delighted with it, or who did not find it most instructive." The most interesting thing about it, is that it's an inverse of what the Earth is: you're looking at it from the inside, but anything that is shown on a globe on the outside is exactly the same on the inside. Unfortunately, in 1862 the lease expired and the Leicester Square which exists today took its place. It was originally built to coincide with The Great Exhibition of 1851 in Hyde Park.The Arctic Highlanders (otherwise known as the Inughuit or Polar Eskimos) got their cutlery from meteorites. (Forfeits: Sheffield; IKEA) An explorer called Ross (after whom the Ross Sea is named) became the first person to encounter them. Up until that point, the Inughuit thought they were the only people on the planet. In 1818 Ross discovered that the Inughuit had cutlery made out of bone and metal, despite their having no technology to smelt metal. To the Inughuit, the bits of meteorite looked like "a woman", "a tent" and "a dog" to them, so they took bits from the woman and used a bit of bone to make their eating implements.Tangent: The first person to reach the North Pole was an American called Admiral Peary, who got there around 70 years after Ross first reached the Arctic. Peary took all the Inughuit's meteorites, and sold them to a museum for US$40,000. He also took 6 children, 4 of whom died of TB immediately. Another one eventually saw his parents as skeletons at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. He complained to Peary, who did nothing about it; and it wasn't until 1993 that they were eventually returned home. Some people even refuse to believe that Peary got to the North Pole, as he would have had to have travelled at speeds no other Arctic explorer has ever managed.The "father of geography", Alexander von Humboldt was taught the language of the Ature by a parrot, 40 years after the last person who spoke it died. Von Humboldt was in Venezuela when he heard about the Carib cannibals, who had eaten the last of the Atures; but it was revealed that there was a pet parrot still alive. So von Humboldt learned all 40 words that the parrot knew, although they were slightly inaccurate, as no-one living could say what they were exactly: so he found someone who knew a similar language and guessed at what the words might have been. Von Humboldt was a homosexual.Tangent: Parrots can learn up to 200 words, but the odd thing is that they only mimic humans. It's unknown why, in the wild, they never mimic any other bird or animal.General IgnoranceMongolians live in gers (forfeit: yurts). "Ger" means "home" in Mongolian. The word "yurt" is of Turkish origin.The Dutch city of Groningen is not to be found in Holland; it's located in the Netherlands. There are two areas called Holland: these are North Holland and South Holland, where the major cities including Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague are located; but both are further south than Groningen. Holland is often used incorrectly as the name of the whole country, which is more properly called the Netherlands (originally the Spanish Netherlands). Groningen claims to have had a pub that opened non-stop for 10 years.The interesting thing about Church Flatts Farm in Derbyshire is that it's the furthest point from the sea in the whole UK. It's 70 miles away from the sea: no place is further away in the whole country.The national anthem of Spain (Marcha Real) is not sung in any language (forfeits: Spanish; Catalan), as it's an instrumental piece. The old lyrics, inspired by Franco, were dropped after his death in 1975. They were inspired to create new lyrics after listening to Liverpool fans singing "You'll Never Walk Alone", which originally came from the musical "Carousel". So, in 2007, the Spanish Olympic Committee organised a competition to create new lyrics for the anthem, but they were withdrawn after 5 days, for being too nationalistic. The song was to be called "Viva Espa?a". The lyrics went, "Long live Spain! Let's all sing together with different voices and only one heart."Tangent: Words to national anthems which seem more controversial than the Spanish one include this from La Marseillaise: "Do you hear in the countryside, those ferocious soldiers roaring? They come up to your arms, to slit the throats of your sons and wives!" The 6th verse of God Save the Queen goes, "Lord grant that Marshal Wade, may by that mighty aid, victory bring; May he sedition hush, and like a torrent rush, rebellious Scots to crush! God Save the King/Queen!" Even more bizarre, the current Dutch national anthem goes, "William of Nassau, scion of a Dutch and ancient line, Dedicate undying faith to this land of mine, A prince I am undaunted of Orange ever free, To the King of Spain, I've granted a lifelong loyalty". The Netherlands was part of the Spanish Netherlands 350 years ago.QI XL ExtrasIt is believed that the Mongol hordes amounted to 2,000,000 people, but they managed to kill 50,000,000 of their enemies. Their main advantage was that they had short bows that could be easily carried around in the saddles of their horses, which they would ride on for days. They were also very violent.The world's driest lake,air jordan, the world's smallest mountain range, and the world's wettest desert are all to be found in the Western United States. The world's driest lake is the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, famous for being the place where land speed records are set: so flat that you can actually see the curvature of the Earth. The world's smallest mountain range is the Sacramento Mountains of California, which shares a name with the state's capital, Sacramento. The official United States difference between a hill and a mountain is that mountains are at least 1,000 feet high from base to apex. In the UK, the current definition is 600 yards above sea level. The world's wettest desert is the Sonoran Desert; the definition of a desert being that it is a place where more water is lost than falls.Tangent: The Mediterranean Sea was once the driest lake in the world, until, in the late Miocene era 6 million years ago, the water from the Atlantic Ocean came over the Rock of Gibraltar, which cause the Mediterranean to flood, but also caused the Rock of Gibraltar to crumble. Because of this, all the fish in the Mediterranean are descended from Atlantic Ocean types. Alan Davies found out this information from the Plymouth Aquarium.Tangent: Barbary monkeys are actually miscalled Barbary apes.The things that are large, blue, rare, slow-moving, have calves, suffer from wet bottoms and are found all over the world are glaciers, otherwise known as ice floes (not Blue Whales). A glacier has been found that is 250 miles long, 60 miles wide, and 1 mile deep. The bits that break off from glaciers are known as calves, which come from ice calving. They have "wet bottoms", because when one gets to warmer climes, its bottom reaches 0°C and melts, as it slides downhill and becomes warmer. They can travel up to 65 feet a day, although one in Pakistan did 7? miles in 3 months. You can even get glaciers in the Tropics: one was spotted on a mountain near Uganda and the Congo. The only things that live in glaciers are ice worms, which live on red algae. In one glacier they found more worms within than there are people living on the planet. Their ideal temperature is 0°C, but they freeze to death at ?7°C, yet they also melt at 5°C. It couldn't be a Blue Whale, because they can reach speeds of 30mph.Tangent: There are no snakes in Ireland because of glaciation, as snakes can't survive in freezing temperatures.Since 1856, the United States has the legal right to seize any territory where there is a supply of guano (forfeit: oil), which is the droppings of birds who have eaten anchovies in Peru. In the 19th century guano was as valuable as gold: it was used as a very rich fertilizer, mainly because it was full of nitrates, potassium, and all the things needed to double, treble, quadruple or even quintuple the crop yields from agricultural land. It contributed 75% of the economy of Peru. The problem was that guano sets like concrete, which made it tough for slaves to dig out from the open-cast mines. Guano isn't used as much now, because anchovies are mainly used in fish farms and for feeding chickens in China. Its properties were first discovered by the aforementioned Alexander von Humboldt.Tangent: It takes 5lbs of anchovies to make 1lb of farmed salmon.Tangent: The 4th best-selling book of all-time, Green Eggs and Ham, has a vocabulary of only 50 words.In the James Bond novel, Dr. No, Dr. No actually dies in it.[edit] Episode 5 "Groovy" (Christmas Special)Broadcast date24 December 200929 December 2009 (XL edition)21 April 2010 (ABC1 airing/iView upload)Recording date28 May 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (Winner with 5 points) 9th win – The first time that Alan has won consecutive shows!Bill Bailey (?6 points) 17th appearanceLee Mack (?29 points) 1st appearanceDavid Tennant (?4 points) 1st appearanceBuzzersLee – It's Beginning to Look a Lot Like ChristmasBill – Merry Xmas Everybody by SladeDavid – Last Christmas by Wham!Alan – Hava NagilaThemeIn keeping with the Christmas mood of the show, the studio is decorated with silver decorations, such as the silver Christmas trees either side of Stephen Fry.TopicsButtercup, the QI cow (or to be precise, pantomime horse) shows the panellists an impression of the way a certain animal walks: she walks with both her right feet moving at the same time, then both her left feet at the same time. The only animals that walk like this are giraffes and camels; cows and horses walk with their front legs bending as they move forward. The first person to show how horses walk was Eadweard Muybridge, the British cinematographer. He showed this in his book Animal Locomotion, in a series of photographs which show the differences between a horse walking, galloping, cantering and trotting.Tangent: Muybridge murdered his love rival in cold blood. He became the first person in American legal forensic history to claim insanity as his defence for a murder charge.People don't seem to mind queue bargers as much as you think. Stanley Milgram did an experiment in which people were asked to obey orders that they wouldn't normally, but where the person who gave the orders wore a white coat it gave them some authority, so they did it. His lesser-known experiments involved queues (or lines, as he called them), observed 129 lines in railway stations and betting shops. He'd make a person shove in between the 3rd and 4th person in the line by saying in a neutral tone, "Excuse me, I'd like to get in here". He'd leave either when he was admonished or when one minute was up, whichever was sooner. The experiments showed that on only 10% of occasions was the person asked to leave or admonished, and that 50% of the time people only did as much as tut.Tangent: A discussion about lane mergers and bar-jumpers. In America, they refer to lane-merging as "like a zip!"Tangent: David's annoyance at people with more than 5 items going in the "5 items or less" queue in supermarkets.Tangent: During World War I, a tank toured Britain to help raise money for the war effort. It toured all the major UK cities and the place where the most money was made was Glasgow. David mentioned this fact to prove to Lee that not all Scottish people are tight-fisted; Lee replied that they probably thought the tank was a fruit machine.Many words that were believed to have originated in the jazz era seem to have originated much earlier than anyone thought. The first use of the word "cool" in the fashionable sense of the word was in 1933. The first jazz use was by Miles Davis in his album Birth of the Cool in 1957. "Groovy" was first mentioned by black jazzers in the 1930s, because the songs were played by placing the pickup needle in the groove of the record. "Hip" or "Hep" originated from Black American slang in 1904. Some of these words have sexual meanings: "in the groove" was also believed to refer the shape of the "ladypiece" (vagina). "Cat", in reference to a person, was first mentioned in 1920. "Chick", meaning a girl, was first mentioned in the modern age in 1927, although there is also a mention in William Shakespeare's Macbeth. "Dude" was first mentioned in 1883. "Foxy" was first mentioned in 1895. "Wicked", as in cool, was first mentioned in 1920 by F. Scott Fitzgerald.A Mormon can only have 1 wife (Forfeit: many). The founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Joseph Smith, had a divine revelation which said that he could have as many wives as he liked, but this was stopped by the US government, who basically said "you can believe what you like, but you can't do what you like". So they can have their own beliefs, but they can't put it into practice because that would break the law. The odd thing is that polygamy is breaking the law, but someone cheating on their partner with someone else and having another family (outside of marriage) is perfectly legal. Interestingly, when the law changed to make polygamy illegal, the head of the Mormon Church had another divine revelation saying it should stop. So for the past 120 years polygamy has been banned in the Mormon Church.Tangent: Argument as to what is classified as "many", because Bill set off the forfeit alarm by saying "up to nine".Tangent: Discussion about The Osmonds (the world's most famous Mormons).General IgnoranceThe Beatles album Help! features the group spelling out NUJV (forfeit: "Help") in flag semaphore on the front cover. The photographer Robert Freeman wanted to spell out HELP, but he didn't like that arrangement of the flags visually, so he changed it to NUJV, which became one of the Beatles conspiracy theories: some believed that NUJV stood for New Unknown John Vocalist.Tangent: Another infamous conspiracy theory is Paul McCartney being barefoot on the Abbey Road cover. The cover seems to show John as a preacher, Ringo Starr as an undertaker, George Harrison as a gravedigger (in denim), and Paul as a corpse. Interestingly, modern versions of the album have the cigarette that McCartney is holding digitally removed.There is no connection (forfeit: drugs) between the songs Puff, the Magic Dragon and Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds. Puff, the Magic Dragon is based on an Ogden Nash rhyme about a "realio, trulio little pet dragon". It was written by Peter Yarrow, who said on being asked about its drug connection, "Even if I had the intention of writing a song about drugs, which I may have had later, I was 20 years old at Cornell in 1959. I was so square, drugs had not emerged. I know Puff was a good dragon, you've heard that from the mouth of the dragon's daddy. It is not about that". The origin of Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds comes from a picture painted by Julian Lennon, at playgroup, of his friend Lucy. It wasn't until much later on that any of the Beatles realised that the initials of the title spelt out LSD.Stephen reads out the following joke and asks the panellists to identify what's wrong about it: A man goes to a doctor saying, "Doctor, Doctor, I can't stop singing Auld Lang Syne". The doctor says, "I'll have to send you to the Burns unit". (Forfeit: It isn't funny) The problem with the joke is that Robert Burns, who is claimed to have written Auld Lang Syne, did not write it. Although most people in the Burns Society believe he wrote it, he himself said it was an old song that he had written down. It was first mentioned in 1724, 35 years before Burns was born. It's popular in the Far East; in Japan it's used daily to signal the closing of large department stores. Bill said it could have been to do with Burns Night, which is 25 January, whereas you sing Auld Lang Syne on New Year's Eve. Auld Lang Syne means "Old Long Since" or "In The Old Days".Tangent: As previously mentioned in Series B, Episode 4, Burns was never referred to as Robbie or Rabbie Burns. He preferred to use Robin, Rab or Robert.QI XL ExtrasGiraffe bicycles were used to light gas lamps. The bicycle was so tall, that the rider would light it from the bike in a leaning position, with the aid of a torch and an assistant. When he was done, he would return to the depot, or wherever he started from and the assistant would help the rider dismount from the bicycle.Tangent: The penny-farthing was known as an ordinary bicycle in its day, despite its unusual shape. Most bikes in the old days were considerably taller than the bikes of today. The first regular-sized bikes with chain drive mechanisms were known as dwarf safeties. The Clark brothers built a tall bike, known as a "flood bike", that could ride through floodwater.Tangent: Nowadays, many tall bikes are used in tourneys for jousting, whereby lances would be attached to the bikes. When he was at school, Stephen played a bike version of quad hockey.Up until July 2008, it was legal to smoke tobacco in Dutch coffee shops or libraries. In these coffee shops, if you mixed your tobacco with cannabis, you would be fined. But you can smoke normal tobacco in the streets, but you'd break the law if you mixed it with cannabis. You can only smoke it in pure grass or hashish form. Cannabis is 7 times more carcinogenic than tobacco. The first smoking ban took place in Nazi Germany in 1933. The ban included banning smoking in public places, advertising, women's rations and linking tobacco use with lung cancer. Adolf Hitler referred to smoking as "the wrath of the Red Indian Man against the White Man, for having been given hard liquor." He even suggested that Nazism might not have worked had he not given up smoking. The earliest known smoking ban was in 1640 when Czar Michael of Russia declared it a "deadly sin". People who did it were flogged and had their lips slit. James I of England wrote a pamphlet about smoking called "A Counterblaste to Tobacco", in which he damned tobacco, mainly citing it as being bad for the eyes, lungs and nose, making him the first anti-smoking tyrant.Tangent: Lee visited Amsterdam when he was 19, and because he didn't do drugs, he just said he'd "have some cake", which of course were hash brownies. Lee had so many that he claimed that at 2am, he accused a taxicab driver of trying to kill him.Tangent: Fly agaric mushrooms in Siberia are eaten by reindeer, and it makes them bounce around. It's believed that's where the idea of the flying reindeer came from. Unfortunately, it's highly toxic to humans, so they would drink the urine of the reindeer to avoid the toxic.Book sniffing is when you sniff an ageing book that grows mildew, mould and fungi on it. One of these fungi is hallucinogenic, which is claimed to have affected many scholars and antiquarians. A leading European mycologist said, "The source of inspiration for many great literary figures may be nothing more than a quick sniff of the bouquet of many mouldy books". The thing is that books rot faster because the paper rots into an acid that makes them rot even faster.Tangent: Lee tells of how he sniffs magazines at dentists to see if any of the smelly aftershave pages still smell after a long time.Tangent: The correct term for the magic mushroom is psilocybin. Experiments involving magic mushrooms seem to try and prove that some religious experiences are based on hallucinations. Some Americans are even trying to prove that there is a God Spot, which has some connection with psilocybin. Magic mushrooms were re-discovered by Albert Hofmann. He more famously discovered LSD, which he found on ergot, which grows on wheat and rye. To test it, he took what he thought was a small dose, but it turned out to be a thousand times more potent than he expected, he described his experience by saying "a demon had invaded me, it had taken possession of my body, mind and soul. I jumped up and screamed to try to free myself from it, sat down again, helpless on the sofa, the substance which I had wanted to experiment on had vanquished me, I was seized by the dreadful fear of going insane". It was also believed that Hofmann was involved in a CIA operation known as Project MKULTRA, which tried to see if LSD could be used as a truth drug.[edit] Episode 6 "Genius"Broadcast date1 January 20102 January 2010 (XL edition)28 April 2010 (ABC1 airing/iView upload)Recording date21 May 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (Winner with 4 points) 10th win – The first time that Alan has won 3 consecutive showsDavid Mitchell (?8 points) 9th appearanceGraham Norton (?19 points) 1st appearanceDara ó Briain (?7 points) 9th appearanceBuzzersDara – University Challenge style intro: "University College Dublin, ó Briain"David – University Challenge style intro: "Peterhouse, Cambridge, Mitchell"Graham – University Challenge style intro: "University College Cork, Norton"Alan – "Can I have a P please, Bob?" – (Blockbusters catchphrase)After Stephen points out that Alan is also a university graduate – from the University of Kent – and the holder of an honourary doctorate, his buzzer changes to an irate Scotsman shouting, "The doctor'll see you NOW!"ThemeIn keeping with the "Genius" theme, each of the panellists are seen wearing stereotypical 'nerdy glasses' at the start of the show.TopicsThe panellists are each asked to put some tissue paper up their left nostril, then say something intelligent. This is because your nostrils control your ability to do certain tasks. If your left nostril is blocked, like the panellists' were, then you should be better at being able to do visual and spatial things, whereas, if the right nostril is blocked, you should be better at being able to do verbal things. This was looked at in a study in 1989 about unilateral nostril breathing by Block, Arnott, Quigley & Lynch. Sportspeople usually wear a nasal strip while playing sports, which of course means they are at their most verbally dextrous, since their noses are unblocked during the time they're on the field, although Graham suggests that they're used mainly to get cocaine up their nose. According to the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, the right nostril makes you more emotionally negative as well.The panellists are given this problem: Consider an n-dimensional hypercube, and connect each pair of vertices to obtain a complete graph on 2n vertices. Then colour each of the edges of this graph using only the colours red and black. What is the smallest value of n for which every possible such colouring must necessarily contain a single-coloured complete sub-graph with 4 vertices which lie in a plane? Interestingly, Graham gave the answer, "6", which was what graph theorists used to think the answer was,nike jordan, up until 2003. The answer has a connection with Graham's number, a number devised by Ronald Graham, which is so big, that all the material in the universe couldn't make enough ink to write it out, but interestingly scientists know that it ends in a "7" (Graham Norton decided he wanted his number to be one higher and end in an "8"). The number is commonly written as "...9404248265018193851562535796399618993967905496638003222348723967018485186439059104575627262464195387". It is now believed to be at least 11, possibly 12, but definitely anywhere between 11 and Graham's number.Exams are believed to easier nowadays, which is not the case. In the old days, IQ tests were done by percentile. Nowadays, the IQ test gets better by 0.3% every year, so 3% over 10 years, meaning children get smarter, so they have to normalise. So, under the Mental Health Act 1983, your great-great-grandparents would be retarded, because their IQ's would be 70. The Flynn effect was designed to try and bring the scores up above the IQ of 70, because in America, you cannot be executed for a capital crime, which would mean that Flynn would often be called up to try and prove that some people retarded, so that they wouldn't be killed. So, the main reason that children find IQ test easier is because they do more problem solving in life, than their parents did.Geniuses might be bred through eugenics, a form of selective human breeding, which was also used by the Nazis. Someone who sort of bred a genius was Leonardo da Vinci, or to be accurate, his brother, Bartolomeo. Bartolomeo wanted his son to be a genius like Leonardo, and he was, in a way. This son, Pierino da Vinci was born just after Leonardo died and he became a genius after being sent to Florence, where he demonstrated great talent, but he died aged 22, leaving 20 works behind him.Tangent: Graham talks about the time that he hosted an American game show and a female contestant on the show was asked what her "fun fact" was, and it was that her father was a serial killer, and her other "fun fact" was that she didn't tell her husband until after they were married. When asked why she hadn't told him, it was because his son had committed suicide.Tangent: The screens show a portrait of Leonardo da Vinci dying with someone in the picture looking like Rodney Bewes from The Likely Lads, which leads to Graham admitting that he didn't know who he was, because The Likely Lads was never shown in Ireland. This leads to Stephen talking about the brilliance of QI, as they usually don't discuss popculture and celebrities, so Alan talking about Bewes annoys Stephen, as it was on a popculture topic. This eventually leads to Alan & Stephen suggesting that 2 other people in the painting look like Matthew Kelly and Brian Blessed.The first animal to be cloned was a sea urchin, which was cloned in 1885 by the German Driesch. In 1902, another German, Hans Spemann cloned a salamander by using a rudimentary noose to separate the cells from the embryo. The noose was made by the hair of a baby. Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1996. Dolly was named after Dolly Parton,mercurial vapor, because the cells came from a mammary gland.Tangent: The first cloned cat came from the cat, Rainbow, but it's clone looked nothing like the original. It was called CC, which was short for "CopyCat". This was part of the project called "Operation CopyCat", part of a larger project to clone a dog, called Missy after Missyplicity. The first clone dog was the South Korean dog, Snuppy.General IgnoranceThe panellists are asked "How old are you?" The official answer is it depends on which part of the body it is. Red blood cells regenerate every 120 days, your liver regenerates every 300–500 days, so roughly 1? years and the entire human skeleton is replaced every 10 years, although the process makes the bones age. So, the entire body is roughly 7–10 years old, but some of the cells are younger than that. 98% of the 7 billion billion billion atoms in the human body are replaced yearly. Most of the cells in your body aren't even human, they're bacteria. There are 50 species of bacteria in the human body, more than 10 times the number of human cells. (Forfeits: Dara – 37; David – 34; Graham – 46)The Church of England thought nothing much of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. Not many people cared about it in the early stages, but by the time it was published, it was the biggest selling book of all time. It had actually sold out before it was printed. He was one of 5 non-royal people to have be buried at Westminster Abbey. The odd thing was that the people of the Church of England were told to believe that everything in the Bible was metaphorical, but it showed that nature doesn't care. They thought that there might have been a linear evolution, but it showed that there was also an horrific side to it as well. The main bad thing was that Victorians loved the countryside as mentioned in Mrs. Alexander's song All Things Bright and Beautiful.The Man with Two Brains, like every other person had 2 brains. Dr Michael Gerschwin discovered that the gut has an enteric nervous system, which can work perfectly if all connections to the brain in your head are severed. It doesn't have the intelligence or consciousness that the brain has, but it can work separately from it.QI XL ExtrasThere is no proof that making babies listen to music like Mozart makes them brainier. Alan claims that babies should only hear natural sounds, otherwise they go destructive and start having behavioural difficulties. It's also believed that because of this children shouldn't watch television until they're 4 years old. There was a study done which was later debunked by many others which claimed that peoples' IQ went up after listening to Mozart, but these people were students, not children.Tangent: Mozart was so talented at a young age that he regularly entertained for people in the House of Bourbon and the House of Hohenzollern.Tangent: "The English Mozarts" – Thomas Linley, who played a concerto at a younger age than Mozart did, he and Mozart played together when they were 14, but he died aged 22, when he drowned after being pushed from a boat into a lake. Samuel Wesley, most of his genius was suppressed because he suffered brain damage after banging his head.Tangent: Interestingly, Mensa is Latin for "table", it was originally called "Mens", the Latin for "mind", but some people thought their "Mens Magazine" would be a gay porn mag. The table represents the "round table of equality". Apparently, "everyone's equal at Mensa, there's no elitism".The Last Supper is decaying badly because Leonardo painted it on dry plaster, rather than wet plaster, which is what you normally do when it's fresco, so it decayed during Leonardo's lifetime. After his death, it decayed more because it was used in Napoleonic times as stabling. Interestingly, the bottom of it was destroyed, so a door was put in the painting at the point where Jesus' legs would've been. There is no proof that da Vinci substituted people in The Last Supper with some people that he knew, which other painters at the time used to do.Tangent: If da Vinci's helicopter had been built, it wouldn't have worked. He isn't known as a great person in the field of science, because of his mirror diary, which had a code, which wasn't deciphered in his time, which had ideas of many inventions that were new at the time, but by the time it was deciphered in the 19th century, just about everything in it had been discovered independently.Tongue rolling has nothing to do with genetics. Many believed that was a genetic connection, but it's not true. There is a similar connection with the connection between your urine smelling after eating asparagus. It is believed that most women don't have the effects of smelly urine after eating asparagus. It used to be known as housemaid's despair, because of housemaids finding chamber pots filled with urine.Tangent: When Stephen was a child, Sugar Puffs made his urine smell of Sugar Puffs. This was followed by a discussion about people being more interested in urine than they let on.Tangent: Alan brings up the theory that people who read books then bring themselves up to have a little smell, aren't smelling the book, they're smelling their own farts.General IgnoranceTangent: Discussion about animals in circuses.Charles Cruft owned a pet cat. He never really cared for dogs. He originally began in the jewellery business in the 19th century, before leaving to work with Spratt, who made dog cakes and dog biscuits. He founded the first dog show, which became bigger and bigger up until his death in 1938. The Kennel Club took over the show, now named Crufts. In recent years it has come under fire because of inbreeding, losing Pedigree as its sponsor, the BBC withdrew television coverage of the show, the RSPCA and the pet charity withdrew. So, the 2009 show was shown live on the Internet for the first time.Tangent: When Alan first heard of "dog cakes", he thought they were cakes made out of dog, like fishcakes are cakes made out of fish.Tangent: Dara talks about cat shows and how people have to try and force their cat to do things, because they're unaware of where they are.Tangent: David describes Crufts as the most pointless show on the TV, which leads to Alan & Graham saying that golf shouldn't be on the TV, but, Stephen defends it.[edit] Episode 7 "Girls and Boys"Broadcast date8 January 20109 January 2010 (XL edition)5 May 2010 (ABC1 airing/iView upload)Recording date29 May 2009PanellistsBoys total: -5 pointsAlan Davies (Unknown score)Jack Dee (Unknown score) 1st appearanceGirls total: 8 pointsRonni Ancona (3 points) 3rd appearanceSandi Toksvig (5 points) 2nd appearanceBuzzersSandi – A woman singing a rising and falling scaleRonni – A harp glissandoJack – A wolf-whistleAlan – A man shouting, "'Ello darlin'!"TopicsUp until the 20th century, baby boys wore pink and baby girls wore blue. Boys at that time were also referred to as girls. In 1900, Dressmaker Magazine said "The preferred colour to dress young boys in is pink. Blue is reserved for girls as it is presumed paler and the more dainty of the two colours, and pink is thought to be stronger". In 1927, Princess Astrid of Belgium caused controversy when she gave birth to a girl, as "the cradle had been optimistically outfitted in pink, the colour for boys". It was believed that blue was more serene and paler, hence it was used for girls. Interestingly, up until the mid-15th century, all children were referred to as girls. Boys were known as "knave girls" and girls were known as "gay girls". Only in recent times, has calling a boy been referred to a male child, before that it meant a servant.Tangent: Female monkeys are attracted to pink because of the pink faces of the young primates.Tangent: It's believed that if someone is picking up a child, that's not theirs, if the child is dressed in pink, they'd be hugged inwards, and if the child is dressed in blue, they'd be hugged outwards.Tangent: An experiment with baby chimpanzees showed that when given the choice of which toy to play with, either a toy truck or a doll, the baby boys all chose the truck and the baby girls all chose the doll.Tangent: The traje de luces, the suit worn by a torero (a matador) in a bullfight, is often pink. It means "suit of light".Tangent: Pink doesn't appear on the spectrum, it's an extra-spectral colour. It's said that girls head towards the red side of a rainbow, whereas boys head towards the blue sky.Tangent: It's also believed that nine-tenths of the food collected by hunter-gatherers were provided by women.At the moment, it's believed that the best way to get a baby girl is to have a low-calorie diet. A study was done and out of 100 people who had had a high-calorie diet, 56 gave birth to a boy. Women who had at least one bowl of breakfast cereal a day were 87% more likely to have a boy than women who ate no more than one bowl a week. On average, women who had boys had roughly 400 more calories daily than those who had girls. Women who were infected with Hepatitis B were 1? times more likely to have a boy. The only known certain way is by embryo selection, which is popular in America and Thailand. It costs around US$18,000. Aristotle believed that the diet of the mother and the sex position at conception made the difference. Anaxagoras thought that boys and girls came from different testicles, so if you tied up one testicle, it would guarantee you the other one. The Talmud suggest lining up the bed north-south before sex, if you want a boy. The French suggest wearing boots to bed would get you a boy.Tangent: Alan tells the story of an English couple who went to Thailand to have their baby. A Thai woman told them, "if you look lovely when you're pregnant, you have girl, if you look tired and ugly, dress badly, you have baby boy." She then asked what she thought she'd have and the Thai woman replied, "Boy", and she had a baby boy.Tangent: Sandi tells of the time when her son brought a friend round and he asked "What's it like having two mummies?", he replied, "It's marvellous, if one of them's poorly, you've still got one to do for you".The reason that there are less female guests on QI is because women laugh less at other women, despite the fact that they laugh more than men, although audiences in general laugh more at men. It is believed that men make prats of themselves more often than women, although Lucille Ball and Goldie Hawn are two examples of women who can do that. Interestingly, as stand-up comedy was getting more popular during the 1980s, women portray women, but men didn't portray men, so in other words, women treated themselves as a minority, even though they are 51% of the population. Germaine Greer famously said, "there are only two things that women don't do as well as men, and that's design dresses and cook", which is slightly amusing considering that nearly all the great chefs and couturiers are men, whereas it was always believed that women were the better cooks and couturiers.In China, Nü Shu is a form of writing devised in Jiangyong County, Hunan Province. It was a writing form that only women could understand. Since, women in China were not taught properly at all, they needed a secret code of writing. Nü Shu is a phonetic type of writing. When a woman in one of these secret friendship groups got married, they were given a book in which they would leave some blank pages, so they could write their secret thoughts down, which only women could read. They would send them, because they could never meet in their groups often, because they had bound feet. Foot binding involved 5 year olds breaking all the bones in their feet, so they could wrap their feet round themselves and then be wrapped up to be around 3 inches. Many of them would rot and many died of gangrene. This went on for around 1,000 years. They would also write using tapestries.Tangent: In the Bantu language, there is a rule that states that is someone got married, the female would no longer be allowed to use any syllable that was in the male's name, because it is a language of respect that women have to use. Another secret language is Pig Latin, where the first syllable is put to the end of the word with the sound ay', so "Quite Interesting" becomes "Itequay Interestingay". In Germany, they have "L?ffelsprache", which means "spoon speak", the French have "Louchébem", the Bulgarians have "Pileshki" and the Japanese is "Ba-bi-bu-be-bo". There's also a camp High church nonsense language where the Holy Communion are referred to as "haggers commagers" and also say "Oooh, Jessica Christ".Tangent: A discussion about teenagers sounding the same in just about every language. Also, the fact that teenagers never look at you, when you ask them to look at you.The panellists are shown a picture of an animal. The animal is half hen, half cockerel. It was a result of a freak accident known as bilateral gynandromorphic hermaphroditism. All the cells on one side are male, the other side are female, which has never happened in humans.Tangent: Clownfish (made popular in the film, Finding Nemo) are known to be very fierce, but they're also immune to sea anemones. They actually form a bond with the sea anemones and have their babies there. They also have gender assignation, which means they can change their gender in later life. If there's a group of fish consisting of a strong female and male, along with several weak males, when the female dies, the strong male becomes female and one of the weaklings becomes the "alpha male".General IgnoranceIt's impossible to tell a woman from a man just by looking at them. It was believed that the easiest way to tell them apart was by the fact that women don't have Adam's apples, but they do. Even so, a good ladyboy can just about imitate anything female.Men are better at map reading than women because of grey matter and white matter (forfeit: they're not). Using MRI scans on men and women with equal IQ, they found that men use 6? more grey matter than women, whereas women used 9 times more white matter than men. Grey matter is central to processing information for intellectual thought, such as map reading and mathematics. White matter connects the processing information to emotional thought such as language speaking and multitasking.Tangent: People being annoying when asking for directions.The prize money given out at Wimbledon is unfair to male competitors (forfeit: nothing (is unfair about it)). When it began in 1884, the ladies' winner got a 20 guinea silver flower basket and the mens' champion got a 30 guinea gold trophy. In 2006, Amélie Mauresmo won £625,000 for playing 142 games, whereas Roger Federer got £655,000 for playing 202 games. The women therefore got more money, because the short matches allowed them to play in doubles tournaments as well. The rate per game in 2005 was £1,432 per game for the top 8 women, whereas the top 8 men got £993 per game. The prize money is equal in terms of money, but not equal as the men have to play more tennis.QI XL ExtrasTangent: Sandi tells of her love for the colour pink.Tangent: Sandi's theory about stamina and the speed of sperm, followed by a discussion about the fact that girls have no sperm at all.Tangent: Alan's suggestion that if you're watching football on TV, you'll more likely have a boy. This also leads to a discussion about using remote controls and reading magazines during sex.The most violent women in history are the Amazons of Dahomey, now known as Benin. They were a group of female warriors whose job was to protect the king. They were nominal wives of the king, but they were celibate. They were chosen for being aggressive, but their husbands could nominate their wife, if he thought she was a nag. They carried a switchblade that was capable of cutting a man in two. Some sources say that they were turned into men and made to despise women, whereas others say that venerated, they had slave girls with them carrying a bell, while men had to avert their eyes.Tangent: Marco Polo suggested that Khutulun, the niece of Kublai Khan, was the most fiercest of all warriors, and she suggested that anyone who wanted to marry her had to wrestle her. If he won, he'd marry her, but if he lost, he'd have to give 100 horses to her. She eventually gained 10,000 horses this way and never married.Tangent: In the United Kingdom, crime committed by women has gone up 25% over the last 3 years, whereas there was a 2% drop for men. It's believed that alcohol is a main component of this, because 50% of their testosterone get sourced through their blood while they're drunk.Tangent: Discussion about girl bullying by text messaging. Sandi then tells of the first time she came to the UK, after being thrown out of an American school at age 14. She went to boarding school for 6 weeks, and no-one talked to her because of her New York accent. She managed to make it more British by watching the film, Brief Encounter. This leads to Stephen saying that if he was getting bullied at school, he'd tell them not to, because it would give him an erection.The connection between grannies and Killer Whales is the menopause. Killer Whales are the only other animals apart from human that have a massive gap between menopause and death, hence the happy and active lives they live. Killer Whales are also matrilineal, so the females keep the life cycle going, as they provide most of the nutrition.Tangent: Killer Whales can kill their own handlers. Sandi's granny got taken out of three care homes for bad behaviour.Tangent: Sandi's mum grew up in Maidstone, Kent during the Battle of Britain, and all the terraced houses on her street were bombed apart from hers, she asked her mother why it wasn't and she replied "Granny wouldn't have allowed it". This leads to Sandi's suggestion that the army should be just grannies.There was an urban myth during the 1940s that the Nazis disguised themselves as nuns with hairy hands during World War II. It was believed that they would parachute in and people in Britain were told to watch out for nuns from the South coast coming up on buses, trains or the London Underground on their way up to the Scottish Highlands. Their cover would be blown when paying fares, because it revealed the hairiness of their hands and forearms and in some cases, a tattoo of Adolf Hitler on their arm. Other ways to test if soldiers were German was to make them speak English, especially some very odd surnames, such as Featherstonehaugh (pronounced "Fanshawe"), Cholmondeley (pronounced "Chumley"), Berekely (pronounced "Barkly"), Mainwaring (pronounced "Mannering") and Belvoir (pronounced "Beaver").Tangent: Female moustaches and Alan's grey pubic hair.Tangent: The Tollemache family. They were a double-barrelled family, so they were the Tollemache-Tollemaches, but it was pronounced "Toolmake-Tollmash". One of their family had the longest name of any person in the British Army, Leone Sextus Denys Oswolf Fraudatifilius Tollemache-Tollemache de Orellana Plantagenet Tollemache-Tollemache. His elder brither was Lyulph Ydwallo Odin Nestor Egbert Lyonel Toedmag Hugh Erchenwyne Saxon Esa Cromwell Orma Neville Dysart Plantagenet Tollemache-Tollemache. Interestingly, his initials spelt out LYONEL THE SECOND.[edit] Episode 8 "Germany"Broadcast date15 January 201016 January 2010 (XL edition)12 May 2010 (ABC1 airing/iView upload)Recording date5 June 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (?36 points)Jo Brand (Winner with ?6 points) 23rd appearanceRob Brydon (?7 points) 9th appearanceSean Lock (?76 points) 20th appearanceBuzzersRob – DeutschlandliedSean – Oom-pah musicJo – Richard Wagner's Ride of the ValkyriesAlan – Don't Let's Be Beastly to the GermansThemeA general forfeit existed to penalise anyone who "mentioned the War".The QI symbol behind Stephen was replaced with the Coat of arms of Germany.TopicsThe German people don't care about the 1966 FIFA World Cup loss to England. If you ask an average German, they don't even know who won it that year. They care more about their matches against the Dutch, such as the 1974 FIFA World Cup final, rather than the rivalry against England. (Forfeit: Very) (Forfeit: Don't Mention the War (Sean))Tangent: The whole notion about Germans "hogging the sunloungers" is supposedly a myth according to a the German writer Ralf H?cker who did a study, which said that the Germans weren't even aware that this thing was associated with them, but a survey done by Halifax Travel Insurance in 2009 showed that the Germans followed by the British, French, Italian and Portuguese were the most likely to reserve sunloungers. This leads to Jo telling a story about crashing into a sunlounger after a confrontation with some fat Germans.Tangent: The other German stereotype is the fact that they are so efficient, which they themselves believe, but they think that the British think they are lederhosen wearing beer drinkers. The 6 major thoughts that the Germans think that the British are untidy, split into mobs, obsessed with royalty, drink tea all the time, are rather reserved and can't cook.During the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, the German authorities confiscated all the Dutch fans' orange Leeuwenhosen because they were sponsored by Bavaria Brewery, which wasn't the official beer sponsor of the World Cup, that was Budweiser. These Leeuwenhosen had big pockets for beer, and had a lion's tail, "Leeuwenhosen" means "lion-pants", just as "Lederhosen" means "leather trousers". They were coloured orange, because of their official royal house, the House of Nassau. So, since they were confiscated before their first match against the Ivory Coast many fans watched the game in their underpants. Other examples of this include at Wimbledon, when a woman had her yoghurt confiscated because it wasn't the official yoghurt of Wimbledon.Tangent: Sean claims that the reason why Premier League footballers get booked for taking their shirt off is because that's when the sponsors are in full view, so by taking them off the sponsors get less coverage.Tangent: Lederhosen originated in the 18th century when it was decided that the upper classes would ape the peasantry and have expensive wedding and country feasts where they pretended to be extravagant, like Marie Antoinette pretended to be a milkmaid with her silver curls.Tangent: Rob shows off his "half-hose" socks, which Jo says make him look like a "knobhead". Rob then asks the audience if they think it's cool, with the majority disagreeing.Tangent: In America, there are a group of people known as the Pennsylvania Dutch, who are descended from the Rhineland and Switzerland. The reason they are referred to as "Dutch", is because the word "Deutsch" which is German for "German" is correctly used as the word "Dutch", so "Dutch" is "Deutsch". The other reason is the "Dutch Dutch" (or the Hollanders) fought Britain many times and eventually invaded England. (Forfeit: don't mention the war)The most repeated television show of all time is the British film, Dinner for One. The show is shown on every German television channel on 31 December, since 1972. It stars Freddie Frinton as a butler who has to serve a Christmas dinner for his mistress, played by May Warden. He pretends there are others there and actually gets drunk while pouring out drinks for these "guests". It's a massive tradition in Germany. It was originally done as a sketch in 1920, which toured round the halls. A German television presenter saw it in 1963, and asked if it could be done in Germany, which it was. The next year it was recorded, and since 1972, it's been shown all time on 31 December. It also spread to Austria and Denmark and other surrounding areas. It's dialogue included the now-popular catchphrase, "Same procedure as every year”.According to Godwin's Rule of Nazi analogies (named after Mike Godwin, the general counsel of the Wikimedia Foundation), "As an online discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Nazis or Hitler approaches 1." In other words, if Hitler is involved in an argument on a message thread, then that thread is at an end, and the person who uses the analogy has lost the argument. An example of this is that Hitler hated fox hunting, so he banned it, which means it must be good, etc.Tangent: During the discussion, a picture is shown of Hitler wearing socks similar to what Rob is wearing.Monopoly board games were used to escape from prison. A man called "Clutty" Hutton bought some Monopoly boards and through the help of MI9 had help turn them into escape kits, which were sold through bogus charities. Amongst the items were real money mixed with the fake Monopoly money, maps on silk, because paper was too bulky and rustly, whereas you could get much more detail on silk. His earlier work involved putting compasses into military tunic buttons. The Germans got wind of it, and worked out that the button could be unscrewed, so then the thread was reversed, so it became tighter as they tried to unscrew it, but then they got wind of that, so razor blades were put in that were magnetized at one end, so when they were attached to something metal, the "G" of Gillette would always point north. They were also given wettened blankets that could be made into greatcoats using it like a tailor's template, as well as pens with sacks of dye in them to make many different colours and playing cards that when dipped in water, could be peeled to reveal money. (Forfeit: Get out of jail free)Tangent: Rob's idea to use giant Jengas to get prisoners out of prison, followed by Alan's idea of using snakes and ladders.General IgnoranceTrick question: Who wrote Brideshead Revisited? (Forfeit: Evelyn War, taken as mentioning the war (Sean))The panellists are shown a picture of a German Shepherd Dog. They were known as Alsatians up until 1977, mainly because at the time people resented anything with the word "German" in it, so they were called Sch?ferhund or Alsatian Wolfhounds, then just Alsatians, which was coined in 1918. Alan then reveals that he had a German Shepherd, which killed his next door neighbour's dog.The Munich Oktoberfest is held mainly in September, although it is occasionally partly in October, depending on how the months are arranged. It's believed the world's biggest continuous festival. Over 6 million people cram into it every year. They drink 6,940,600 litres of beer during the festival.Tangent: Alan tells of the time that he went to the 1998 FIFA World Cup in Bordeaux, France, where some temporary bars were built up in the city, and when Scotland played Norway, the Scots drank more beer that weekend then the entire population of Bordeaux drink in a year. Each of the bars only sold lager, and there were no food stalls and no toilets. One of the drunk Scots then mistook Alan for Alan Partridge.The panellists are asked to name what's wrong with this extract from the song My Favourite Things:Cream-coloured ponies and crisp apple strudels, doorbells and sleigh bells and schnitzel with noodles.The answer is "schnitzel with noodles", as they are never eaten together. There is a possibility that the popularity of the song has meant that some people eat it, but it's just because of the song. The lyrics of the song were done by Rodgers and Hammerstein. The film ends with the family crossing the border, not into Switzerland, but into Bavaria, near Hitler's private house, but then they walked the 100 kilometres down to Innsbruck and got to the border with Italy the day before it was shut.QI XL ExtrasThere are some words for which there is no literal translation in the English language, so words are borrowed from other languages.Schadenfreude means "pleasure in the misfortune of others".Gemütlichkeit means "cosiness". It's mainly used in Austria and Bavaria. "Gemütlich" people are also said to be very kind to their neighbours. In 1973, a British man sued a holiday firm because he didn't receive any "gemülichkeit", as promised and he won. It actually set a precedent in English contract law.Zugzwang is a chess term, which means that you are forced to move, even though it might weaken your position, because in chess, you can't skip your turn after your opponent makes one, you have to move, even though your position might be worse than when you started.Zeitgeist means "spirit of the age", or "time spirit/ghost".Tangent: Another of these loanwords id Gesundheit, which means "soundness" or "health".The panellists are shown a ghost-like object, a SPUK, which is a device that is put on the underside of the toilet seat, and when it's raised it give off a voice message which tries to force German people to sit down on the toilet seat to urinate, rather than stand up. SPUK is an acronym for StehPinkler Unter Kontrolle. "Stehpinklen" in German means to stand urinating, whereas "Sitzpinklen" means to "sit urinating".Tangent: Rob tells of how when he sits down on the toilet, his half-hose falls down to his ankles, if he's wearing something like a jumbo cord. Sean then says that when he's on the toilet, he takes his glasses off and puts them on his pants as a sort of hammock, but then he sometimes forgets they're there and they get "rammed into his under-regions".In Germany, they have a thing called the "Nacktputzservice", in which naked German students are hired to do hoovering and housework. It originated from the Freik?rperkultur (or FKK), which meant "free body culture". It was widespread in Germany until Hermann G?ring put a stop to it during the 1930s, when he trained the police to stop people from going round naked. But, since then German hikers near open areas in Switzerland and Poland just like to go round naked. The Swiss and Poles both find it disgusting. There are designated nude beaches in Germany, and the Englischer Garten in Munich has a designated nudist area, as well as Berlin's biggest park, the Tiergarten. (Forfeit: don't mention the war[clarification needed] (Sean))Tangent: Sean says that is he were a nudist, he'd put a bit of toilet paper up his bottom and see if anyone noticed.Uncle Wiggly Wings was a pilot who helped children during the Berlin Airlift in the Cold War. The Russians had sealed off all transport routes to West Berlin in 1948, when it was under Allied control in the centre of the Russian Sector. The whole city was cut off from the rest of the world for a year, so the British & Americans dropped food from planes to help the people below. One pilot gave 2 kids some chewing gum and promised he'd return and give them some more candy. The next day he wiggled his wings and dropped chocolate and more and more children kept coming, and it became a mass propaganda coup, which became known as "Operation Little Vittles". The sweets came down in little handkerchief-style parachutes. 2,223,000 tons of supplies were dropped during the airlift. (Forfeit: don't mention the war (Sean × 2))General IgnoranceIn Germany, at 11:11 on 11 November every year, the Germans celebrate the start of their Carnival, which lasts all the way up to Ash Wednesday. It starts off quietly through November and December, partially due to Christmas, but by the time the Mardi Gras arrives, everything is in full flow. The word "carnival" doesn't mean "goodbye to meat", as believed, but actually means "to remove meat from your diet", from the words "carne levare". (Forfeit: don't mention the war (Alan))[edit] Episode 9 "Gallimaufrey"The full episode title "A Gallimaufrey of Gingambobs", means "an absurd medley of testicles".Broadcast date22 January 201023 January 2010 (XL edition)19 May 2010 (ABC1 airing/iView upload)Recording date4 June 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (?56 points)Hugh Dennis (Winner with 4 points) 2nd appearanceAndy Hamilton (2 points) 5th appearancePhill Jupitus (?15 points) 20th appearanceBuzzersHugh – Oboe playing stately tuneAndy – Bassoon playing jaunty tunePhill – Strings and flute playing jolly melodyAlan – When I'm Cleaning Windows by George FormbyTopicsCaptain Schlitt of German submarine U-1206 caused his U-boat to sink because of a problem he had involving the toilet in the submarine. The problem with toilet in submersible vehicles is that they can't work like toilets on aeroplanes and trains, because of the obvious dangers with being underwater. Special training is actually needed to operate it properly. On 14 April 1945, Schlitt went to the toilet to do a poo, and he claimed that the toilet flush wasn't working properly, but there is a theory that he just did a rather unpleasant poo and didn't want to ask the person who did the flushing to come in, so he did it himself and got it wrong and filled the submarine with sewage and water, which then lead to the power source, a huge acid battery, which therefore created toxic chlorine gas, so they had to surface to vent the gas, but they spotted and blown out of the water.The handwriting of each panellist is shown.A graphologist would say of Andy's that because it's mostly joined up, it's of a "logical, systematic thinker", since some words are spaced out, he is "open, honest, but deep in thought", and "sociable", because of the slightly forward slant to the right.Alan's would be described as "unstable", because of the close lettering, "does things without thinking", because the letters aren't mostly joined up.Hugh's would be described as "artistic and intuitive", because most, but not all of the letters are joined up, but because it's upright, it also shows "self-control, egoism and coldness".Phill's would be described as also having "self-control, egoism and coldness", "unstable" and "does things without thinking".Stephen then explains that there wasn't much point in doing this because the British Psychological Society says that graphology as a way of interpreting character has zero validity. It's also not allowed in American courts either. Although, forensic graphology is allowable. Amazingly, 3,000 British businesses use graphologists for recruitment.Tangent: Andy once took a handwriting test to try and become a French train driver. He reveals that his friend's dad was a psychologist for SNCF, and they did test to work out if drivers were maniacs or not, so they made people write with their wrong hand, and put a rubber ring around the middle of the pen and you had to try and trace over what was written there. If you drifted up the page, you were either assertive or slightly aggressive, but if it went down the page, you were deemed as too passive. There was also another test where the applicants were told to press the coloured button they were told to press for 15 seconds and there would be a hooter sounded, if they got it wrong. It would also be heard after the 15 seconds, to make sure they didn't go to pieces.In Ireland, the police, known as the Garda were duped by a Polish driver called Prawo Jazdy. This driver had done 50 speeding offences across Ireland, and was fast becoming Ireland's most wanted motorist. He managed to make different driving licences with different addresses, so it would be hard to catch him. Then one of the Garda realised that Prawo Jazdy was the Polish for driving licence. Even more weird was the fact that above Prawo Jazdy on the licence was "Permis de conduire", which is of course French. The Queen is the only person in Britain, who can legally drive without a driving licence. The first person to have a driving licence was Karl Benz of Mercedes-Benz. The people who authorised the tests were the Dampfkesselüberwachungsverein (Steam Boiler Supervision Association), who authorised the first mandatory licences in Prussia.Tangent: Up until 14 May 2002, women in Lithuania were made to undergo smear tests, or to be more accurate, a gynaecological examination. In China, they have a driving test that consists of 100 multiple choice questions. One of them is "If you come across a road accident victim whose intestines are lying on the road, should you pick them up and push them back in?" Yes or No? The answer is No. It was believed that in China that some traffic lights had the colour sequence altered, so red meant go and green meant stop, but they didn't change all the lights, so some still remained at red for stop and green for go, although in some cases, blue is used instead of green, because red-green is a common form of colour blindness.Spring travels from Land's End to John o' Groats every year at about ? of a mile per hour, although when going over hills, it takes an extra couple of days per 100 feet of elevation. It officially takes 8 weeks to get from the south of the UK, to the north of the UK. Spring is officially a phenotype of when common plants associated with Spring start to bloom. Birds fly south in the Winter, mainly because they need a source of food.The panellists are shown diagrams of perpetual motion machines. A perpetual motion machine never stops, so it carries on forever, but it also must not have any energy input, although it must carry on having energy output. Interestingly, perpetual motion transgresses both the first and second law of thermodynamics. In an episode of The Simpsons, Lisa makes a perpetual motion machine, although it's impossible for it to happen in reality. Leonardo da Vinci did some drawings of possible perpetual motion machines, but he realised early on that it was going to be impossible for them to work.General IgnoranceIf you give a child a really sugary drink, they do not go hyperactive, according to a medical study. The interesting thing about it is that parents actually perceive that sugary drinks make children go hyperactive. A trial on the QI website showed that 0% of people believed this statement.If you leave teeth in a glass of cola overnight, nothing much happens (forfeit: they dissolve). In 1951, Clive McCay of Cornell University made an appearance before a select committee at the United States House of Representatives claimed that if a tooth was left in cola, it would start to dissolve after 2 days, but the point is that it's irrelevant, because cola goes down your mouth quickly when you drink it, it doesn't soak into your teeth. Cola does cause tooth decay, but not as much as crisps, as mentioned in a previous episode of QI.Tangent: Cola, as well as HP Sauce and vinegar are very good at cleaning coins.Tangent: Andy's mum used to tell him not to drink cola, because it stains the inside of your stomach.The only ape that walks just on its 2 feet, but isn't a human is the gibbon (forfeits: orangutan; baboon). This way of walking is considered to be more primitive according to evolutionists.The panellists are asked to put these 4 things in age order from oldest to youngest: The Himalayas, a triceratops, a spider and a cockroach. The answer is the spider at 300 million years old, then the cockroach, which was just afterwards, then the triceratops which lived between 65 and 230 million years ago and lastly, the Himalayas, which are only 40 million years old. Interestingly, ants are contemporaneous with dinosaurs, but cockroaches pre-date them by 55 million years.QI XL ExtrasStephen introduced the panellists using Georgian slang. "Gravy-eyed" means runny eyes, "Glimflashy" means an angry person, "Whiddle my scrap" means knowing someone's game or to see what people are up to. This leads to a game of Call My Bluff.A "gentleman of three outs" is either a) a person without wit, money or manners, b) a person who owned three outhouses, which would be a mark of status in the 18th century, or c) a genteel description by Punch of the highwayman Jonny Tripplearse. The answer, correctly guessed by Alan was a)."Grog Blossom" is either a) the mould inside a barrel of beer that you have to clean out before you can use it again, or b) pimples that were grown on peoples' faces after drinking too much. The answer, incorrectly guessed by Andy & Hugh was b).It's believed that 20% of people have difficulty getting up in the morning, because they are either larks or owls. If they were a lark, they'd sleep at dinner parties and if they were an owl, they just can't get up. It's believed that young children and old people are larks, whereas teenagers are owls. There are many other methods of getting up, the MIT invented an alarm clock that when you pressed the Snooze button, it runs away and hides, and it's programmed to go to a different place every day, so it always changes. There is also an alarm clock in the shape of a dumbbell, and it doesn't shut up until you've done 30 reps with it. There is also one that has an online connection, and every time you press Snooze, money is donated to a political cause that you hate.Tangent: Phill tells of how he used to sleep listening to BBC World Service, and then waking up listening to BBC Radio 4 and thinking he'd dreamt the news that he heard during his sleep, so thought he was psychic. This leads to Stephen telling a story of how he raided the kitchen at boarding school at 3am, just to get blocks of jelly.Tangent: Andy tells the story of a binman who worked near his house at Hernhill, who always sung the last note of Don't Cry for Me Argentina wrongly.Tangent: When the American Indians went on dawn raids they used to drink lots of water to make sure they got up early.Tangent: Andy has a cuckoo clock, which has a monkey, instead of a cuckoo in it, and it only comes out whenever he says something interesting.The Goldilocks effect works on the theory that Goldilocks liked everything "just right". It's used in business, you have 3 items, the first one is unbelievable expensive, the second is a quarter of the price, but just as nice, and the third is very cheap, which makes people go for the second one. The best use of the Goldilocks effect is with airfares. A standard Transatlantic economy seat is £500, business class is £3,500 and first class, where you get a full-size bed and have food whenever you want would cost £8,000. So, people would think that the perks of business class would be reasonable compared to first class, even though it costs 7 times as much as economy.Tangent: Alan was once told by Steve Cram that some trainers have to expensively made so people will buy them, an example of "prestige pricing".Tangent: The Goldilocks Zone is the distance from the Sun that another planet has to be in another solar system which would support water where it wasn't too hot or cold.The snail telegraph was a form of communication. A Frenchman called Benoit had an idea that when 2 snails mated, they had a telepathic power, which meant that no matter how far away they were, they could always make thoughts to each other. So, he raised money and then glued 24 snails in a dish and labelled them all with letters of the alphabet and then he labelled the mates of the snails on another dish and sent it to New York City, so the mate of the one in New York City would wibble to receive the message from the other one in Benoit's lab. Unfortunately, this pasilalinic-sympathetic compass with "escargotic" vibration was proven not to work at all.[edit] Episode 10 "Greats"Broadcast date29 January 201030 January 2010 (XL edition)26 May 2010 (ABC1 airing/iView upload)Recording date12 June 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (2 points)Jo Brand (?46 points) 24th appearanceSean Lock (?6 points) 21st appearanceDavid Mitchell (Winner with 4 points) 10th appearanceBarack Obama (?10 points)BuzzersSean — Great Balls of Fire by Jerry Lee LewisJo — The Great Pretender by The PlattersDavid — The Great Escape themeAlan — A recorded call centre message from First Great EasternTopicsDespite all the claims, many of the world's greatest dictators weren't short, and there is no proof that shorter people are more power-hungry than taller people, otherwise known as the Napoleon complex. Napoleon was above the average height at 5'7". The reason many think he was short was because the British cartoonist James Gillray. His most famous depiction of Napoleon was a picture of him standing on George III's hand in a sort of Gulliver's Travels sort of way. He was actually 3 inches taller than Nelson. Stalin was 5'5", Mussolini was 5'6", Franco was 5'4", Hitler was 5'8". Some exceptions include Idi Amin who was 6'4", the same height as Stephen, Fidel Castro was 6'1" and Mao was 5'9", which exceptionally tall for a Chinese person.Tangent: There does seem to be cases of heightism in the workplace, short people are paid less than taller people and is comparable in magnitude to race and gender. A study of Fortune 500 companies shows 90% of the chief executives of those companies are above average height, and 30% of those are above 6'2".Everyone who was born in Europe is descended from the 8th century king Charlemagne. The reason being is that since every person has 2 parents, 4 grandparents, 8 great-grandparents, etc., by the time you get back to the 13th century, you'll have had more ancestors than people who have lived on the planet. This was discovered in 1995, by a man called Mark Humphreys at Dublin University. He discovered that his wife was the great-granddaughter of King Edward III, 20 generations down the line. He also discovered that Hermann G?ring and the American explorer Daniel Boone had the same ancestry and then realised that the mathematics meant that everyone had the same ancestry as well.The greatest good that the Great Fire of London did was to clear buildings so that new ones could be made by Christopher Wren, such as St Paul's Cathedral (forfeit: cleared the city of plague). By the time of the fire, most of the plague had already gone, but it wouldn't have made much difference to the city, because the plague mainly took hold in the suburbs. By the time of the fire in September 1666, there were very few deaths and it just died, not because of the fire, but by an unknown source.The Great Train Robbers weren't really great because of the very easy methods in which they were caught. The went to a farm and played Monopoly using the stolen money and they left their fingerprints all over the set. 12 of the 15 were rounded up, 1 was acquitted and 2 of them were never caught. The most famous member was Ronnie Biggs, who was asked by the mastermind, Bruce Reynolds to find a diesel train driver for the robbery. The man he found was known either as Old Pete or Stan Agate (it's not known because he was one of the 2 who were never caught), and so Biggs received £147,000 (£1.6 million today) just for finding this driver and bringing him to the scene, who it turned out, couldn't drive a train, yet Biggs still received his money.Despite being discovered in 1535, the reason it took 300 years to give the Giant tortoise a scientific name was because they were so edible. While they were being brought back to London and eventually Europe, they were all eaten, so no scientific study on them could be done. The only comparisons of them were that they tasted like chicken, beef, mutton and butter and saying how much better they are than all of those things. No-one who had ate tortoise had eaten anything better. All 12 species of giant tortoise are now protected. Adwaita was Clive of India's pet tortoise. He died in 2006, at the age of 255, meaning he was born before Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, before the French Revolution and had his death announced on CNN. He is believed to be the oldest living creature ever, because most creatures don't survive long out of captivity. They were also used as water stores, because they have a special internal bladder that stores water so perfectly that it's drinkable, so when you slit them open you get an extra gallon of fresh water. It was pretty useful, as they could be stacked on boats, because they couldn't move and they didn't need to be fed for a long time. They also contributed to whaling, as they could be used as a foodstuff and a water supply. They had no predators until they were discovered by man, they were evolutionarily complacent, like many island species, because only humans travel across islands in that way.General IgnoranceCatherine the Great died in bed after suffering a stroke while on the toilet. People who it is believed did die on the toilet were Elvis Presley and George II, who was declared dead "at stool". It's also not true that Catherine had sexual intercourse with a horse, also she did have plenty of sex with some of her courtiers. Her son, Tsar Paul I hated her and spread the rumour about the sex with horses, as did the French. (Forfeit: on the loo [clarification needed])Tangent: Discussion about 18th century paintings depicting horses with small heads.In cold weather, most of your heat escapes from your arm or leg (forfeit: your head), if exposed. Only 10% of heat escapes from your head.Tangent: Sean tells of how he once sat next to Lionel Blair, and that he never got the chance to tell his grandmother that fact.The lingua franca (or everybody's second language) of Ancient Rome was Greek (forfeit: Latin).43 different men have been President of the United States. The panellists are shown a clip from the inauguration of Barack Obama, which shows him saying he's the 44th President, which is true in the case of terms, but not in the terms of people. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd and 24th President, so he took the Presidential Oath twice. The reason he is counted twice is because he had two non-consecutive terms, since Benjamin Harrison was President between his two terms, so Obama is the 43rd different American president. (Forfeit: 44 — since the forfeit was taken from Obama's speech, Obama himself was given the forfeit of ?10 points.)QI XL ExtrasThe Great Disappointment was the name given to the supposed Second Coming of Jesus. The American William Miller carefully scrutinised the Bible and it suggested that Jesus would return in 1844 and scourge the world and clean the sanctuary, that was according to Daniel 8:4. Over a million Millerites believed him and sold everything they had to prove this belief. One man even threw himself off a barn believing he would be scooped up and saved. Unfortunately, Jesus didn't return and it became known as "The Great Disappointment". Interestingly, many more well-known religions have branched off from Millerism, including the Seventh-day Adventist Church, which was founded by a former female Millerite, and currently has 15 million adherents in America. Another man, Charles Russell founded the Jehovah's Witnesses, which held the belief of the Apocalypse, as depicted in the Book of Revelations. Nowadays, there is a new movement, known as the Rapture, that believes that when Jesus returns, everyone will escape from their bodies and leave their clothes behind them. A book by Edgar Whisenant that was released in 1988 and called 88 Reasons why the Rapture is in 1988, sold 4 million copies, although it of course, didn't happen, but there is now a website called www.raptureready.com, which has millions of hits, tells of ways to prepare for the Rapture and to protect loved ones who don't make it, such as being stung by enormous wasps. (Forfeit: Have you been talking to my husband? (Jo))Tangent: In the Nazi concentration camps, the Jehovah's Witnesses had purple triangles on their uniforms, the Jews had yellow stars, the gays had pink triangles.Tangent: As mentioned in Series C, Samuel Pepys famously buried some Parmesan cheese in his garden to protect it from the Great Fire.Cheese tastes better when it's grated because it has a wider area that connects with the tongue and the cheese has a more intense flavour. When Parmesan is grated, it smells of vomit, mainly due to it having butyric acid and isovaleric acid in it, which are also to found in body odour.Tangent: Discussion of why cheese has a sell-by date on it.Tangent: Sean mixing up the Great Train Robbery with the plot of the film Herbie Rides Again. The Great Train Robbery took place on 8 August 1963 and the amount of money stolen was the equivalent of £40 million in today's money. The train was a post office train that was being sent to burn used £1, £5 and £10 notes.Tangent: The main reason why the Great Train Robbery was referred to as "Great", was because it was simply a train robbery. In 1903, the first ever film that was based on a story, rather than just looking at nature was release and it was called The Great Train Robbery.Tangent: Alan tells of a café near him that does "good ol' English grub" and on the table there are 3 different menus, one has Sid James and Barbara Windsor in a Carry On film, one has Peter Cook and Dudley Moore in their overcoats and the other has the Kray twins.If a Giant Panda does a handstand in front of you, it's trying to tell you that you're on its land. Because they eat for 12 hours a day, they don't have much time for rutting or fighting, so they urinate to mark out their territory, and they prefer to urinate while in the handstand position, and the higher up a tree that the urine lands on, the more dominant it is.Tangent: A recent discovery in San Diego Zoo has revealed that pandas don't need Viagra or panda pornography to get sexually excited. It's believed that if they swap cages and smell the secretions in each other's cage, then they're up for it.[edit] Episode 11 "Gifts"Broadcast date5 February 20106 February 2010 (XL edition)1 June 2010 (ABC1 airing/iView upload)Recording date19 May 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (?18 points)Clive Anderson (?14 points) 13th appearanceJimmy Carr (?7 points) 14th appearanceJan Ravens (Winner with 6 points) 1st appearanceBuzzersJimmy — Gimme All Your Lovin' by ZZ TopJan — Give Me Just a Little More Time by Chairmen of the BoardClive — Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight) by ABBAAlan — (How Much Is) That Doggie in the Window? by Patti PageTopicsThe panellists are given bags of items that are seized by American customs. Items include counterfeit money, a handkerchief covered in any amount of human fluids, Spam, seeds, a lottery ticket, a Cuban cigar, shoes that have been to a farm in the last month, a hessian bag and a Kinder egg. You could go to prison for 2 years for bringing in a lottery ticket. The hessian bag isn't allowed, because it's made of hemp. The most confiscated item is a Kinder egg as children may choke on it. Alan notes that the panellists were actually supplied with Creme Eggs, and not Kinder Eggs. Only people with one arm can carry a switchblade.Tangent: Since 1992, there has been a ban on all imports from Cuba to the United States, but most United Nations countries have condemned this boycott, except for Israel and Palau.The word for people who don't laugh is agelastic. Examples given were Isaac Newton, who only laughed once in his whole life, Joseph Stalin, who never laughed according to Marshal Zhukov, Jonathan Swift and William Ewart Gladstone. Whereas Anthony Trollope couldn't stop laughing, he actually died giggling. There are theories of laughter: the superiority theory, the sudden glory felt when someone else suffers; the incongruity theory, when the logical dissolves into the absurd, and the relief theory, which was Freud's idea, relieving inhibition to forbidden thoughts and feelings, which leads to Jimmy talking about his book, The Naked Jape, which was about theories like that from around the world. Interestingly, animals can't laugh.Tangent: Jan explains that performing impressions of other people's physical movements and mannerisms is called echopraxia. An impression of the way they speak is called echolalia.Tangent: Trollope also invented the post box, but he regretted doing so. The problem was that women were now able to communicate freely at post offices, because before the post box, every woman had to go to their father or servant to put the stamp on, but now they could do send the letters themselves, so could have relationships without their parents' consent.The oldest joke in the world was "There was an absent-minded professor who was on a sea voyage when a storm blows up and his slaves are weeping in terror. He said, "Don't cry, I have freed you all in my will"". That joke depicted the Abderites as being rather stupid. The Greek joke book, the Philogelos has this joke inside it: "An Abderite asks a eunuch how many children he has, the eunuch replies "None, Duh! I'm a eunuch!", then the Abderite says..." The punch line of that joke is actually missing. Another old joke is a Sumerian one from 1900BC, which goes "something that has never occurred since time immemorial – a young woman did not fart in her husband's lap." An old English one is "What is the most cleanliest leaf amongst all others? – Holly leaves, because no-one will wipe their arse with them."Tangent: The subject of the first impression recorded was Socrates in The Clouds, a play by Aristophanes. Socrates was put to death for corrupting youths.Tangent: An old Greek joke provided by Jimmy that still works today, "A barber asks "How do you want your hair cut?", and the person says "In silence"."A scold's bridle was a torture device for women who gossip or were malicious and spiteful. A more common punishment is the cucking stool, wrongly known as the ducking stool. The male equivalent was barratry. Interestingly, there are hardly any records of them being used, 50 of them still exist today. The studio has the one that currently resides in Walton-on-Thames."What do you get if you cross a caterpillar and a butterfly?" There is a theory put forward by Donald Williamson called hybridogenesis stating the butterfly and the caterpillar are of different species. Normal starfish start life as a small larva with a tiny starfish inside. They grow and separate and the larva degenerates. Williamson found the Luidia sarsi differs with the larva living for months as an independent animal. He reasons there is a chance of creating a double species, since "sperm and seed" have been mixing in the sea for millions of years, so these new species could be created once every million years. (Forfeits: butterpillar, caterfly)1% of American adults are in jail, roughly 2.3 million, or 1 in every 99.1 adults. More than twice as many as South Africans, more than three times as the Iranians, more than six times as the Chinese. No society in history has imprisoned more of its citizens than the United States. The United Kingdom is ahead of China, Turkey and India, with 148 prisoners per 100,000. In the USA, they have the three strikes law, which gives a life sentence for anyone's third crime, no matter how trivial, providing they have 2 serious crimes against them already. So, a man called Leandro Andrade is serving 2 consecutive 25-year terms for shoplifting 9 videotapes. Another man, Kevin Weber, got given 26 years for stealing 4 chocolate chip cookies. One in 30 men aged between 20–34 are in jail, and for black males, it's 1 in 9. There are more 17-year-old black people in jail, than in college. 5% of the world is American, and 25% of all prisoners are American.Tangent: In reference to the first question, you're not allowed to bring in anything into America that has been made in a prison, but interestingly, the prisoners are effectively slave labour. 100% of all military helmets, ammunition belts, bulletproof vests and ID tags and other military essentials are made in jail, along with 93% of domestically produced paints, 36% of home appliances and 21% of office furniture, which allows the USA to compete with Mexico. All prisoners are forced to work, failure to comply leads to solitary confinement.General IgnoranceThe Cornish Wreckers may have made a living salvaging shipwrecks (forfeit: lured ships onto the rocks). The closest thing to luring ships onto the rocks was a wreck in Anglesey, but that turned out to be a myth as well. It never happened, so no-one was ever hanged for it. The only evidence of it is in books such as Jamaica Inn by Daphne du Maurier. Interestingly, Jan won an edition of Celebrity Mastermind with Daphne du Maurier as her specialist subject. It's believed that Methodist preachers wanted to give the idea that Cornish people were barbarians of sorts. It was then repeated by Rev. Sabine Baring-Gould, who wrote Onward, Christian Soldiers.Tangent: Baring-Gould is also believed to have been at a children's party he asked a small girl, "And whose little girl are you?" whereon she burst into tears, and said: "I'm yours, Daddy." He did however have 15 children, so could have been easily confused. Alan tells how a comedian was asked after an act who his agent was, and the comedian replied "You are".Tangent: Art collector Edward James recalled in his autobiography, his mother shouting "Nanny! I'm going to church. I want one of my daughters to go with me." The nanny then asked which one. Mrs. James replied "The one with the red hair, she'll go with this coat."It is virtually impossible for Archimedes to have moved the Earth in the way he suggested (forfeit: with a lever). He said, "Give me a place to stand and I will move the Earth." Assuming he weighed 100 kilograms and placed his fulcrum a kilometre away from the bottom of the Earth, he would need a lever 6.5 billion light-years long to balance and move the planet. Assuming that he moved the lever by one metre, the Earth would move by less than the diameter of a single proton.Tangent: If you tried to use Newtonian mechanics, by getting everyone to jump up at the same time, the Earth would a tiny bit, but it would be cancelled out by the Third Law of Motion.QI XL ExtrasTangent: Despite the United States-Cuba boycott, you can still get flights to Miami, and people on the flights wear massive coats to hide things that they're not allowed to bring on board from security.Tangent: In recent times, the Academy Awards goody bag have had to be declared against tax. The 2008 Academy Awards goody bags were worth £57,000. They included a £15,000 holiday, an espresso machine, a cashmere blanket worth £855 and a white gold pearl and diamond pendant worth £740. At the BAFTAs, you get given Tic Tacs and at the British Comedy Awards, they used to give out bowls of Minstrels, as well as plenty of alcohol.The box of chocolates given by Gordon Brown to George W. Bush were immediately destroyed. Under the guidelines of the United States Secret Service, any food or drink is immediately destroyed, such as the £150 box of Charbonnel et Walker given by Brown to Bush. The Prime Minister of Qatar gave him a £650 box of chocolates, the President of Iraq gave him an assortment of nut pasties and 3 lb of live shamrocks from Bertie Ahern given to celebrate Saint Patrick's Day were all destroyed. The QI office rang Downing Street to ask if they were aware of this, they didn't reply. Brown gave Barack Obama an inedible ornamental penholder made from the Victorian anti-slaver HMS Gannet. In return, Brown was given 25 American classic DVDs, not including, as Jimmy hoped, Who's Nailin' Paylin? Interestingly, some believe that the discs were actually Region 1, which meant that Brown couldn't watch them unless he had a hacked DVD player. It's believed that the only reason these pointless presents are given out is because of protocol.The world's cheapest cheapskate is the dance fly, which give gifts in the form of silk or a balloon wrapped in the male's anal secretions. One of the species, the Rhamphomyia sulcata, which captures an insect, sucks out its innards completely and then wraps the empty shell and gives it to the female, but by the time that the female unwraps it, he's mated her, then scarpered. In the insect kingdom, some male insects pretend to be females, so they can receive a gift from a male and just have it for another female.Tangent: Jan tells of the story about one of the first cheapskates, Diogenes the Cynic.Tangent: It was almost impossible to do an impression of Gladstone or Disraeli in the 19th century, as the population was so big, it would be hard to know if the impression was accurate at all. Harold Macmillan met Peter Cook at the Fortune Theatre, and Cook impersonated Macmillan, the first time a Prime Minister had been impersonated. In 1737, Robert Walpole created an act which forbade any person from doing political satire on him, it also gave the Lord Chamberlain the powers to approve any play before it was staged, with the exception of The Establishment Club.Luigi Galvani from Bologna discovered that electricity works through frogs, hence creating the term galvanization, which meant that humans worked with electricity. His Giovanni Aldinistar pupil toured England in 1803 and astounded the Royal College of Surgeons with what he discovered. He convulsed the body of the murderer George Forster, just after he'd been hanged. Electric rods were attached to Foster's mouth and ear, which led to the jaw quivering and one eye opening, then when a rod was placed up his rectum, the whole body convulsed, so it looked like reanimation. The experiment proved that the nerves use electricity to make the body work, rather than pneumatic power as previously thought. Mary Shelley saw this to prove that electricity created life, but oddly, in her book Frankenstein, electricity isn't used, only in all the film representations of Frankenstein is it used. Galvanized buckets are coated with zinc to avoid corrosion, it has nothing to do with this form of galvanization.The Emperor of China hated pigeons because they used to steal the rice from his rice granaries. Enemies of the Emperor would train pigeons to fly to the granaries and tell them to steal as much of the rice as they can and fly back, then they would be fed water and alum to disgorge the rice, which could then be washed. They could get 50 lbs of rice from 100 pigeons. It's unknown if they were ever caught.Tangent: Clive once got given some homing pigeons, which returned to their original owners after a couple of weeks.[edit] Episode 12 "Gravity"Broadcast date12 February 201013 February 2010 (XL edition)8 June 2010 (ABC1 airing/iView upload)Recording date9 May 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (Joint Winner with 3 points) 11th winBill Bailey (?8 points) 18th appearanceRich Hall (Joint Winner with 3 points) 19th appearanceBarry Humphries (?36 points) 1st appearanceNote: This is the first time Alan has been a joint winner, and also the first time that Rich Hall has sat in a different seat to his usual one (on Stephen's immediate left). Up until now, only Alan has sat in the same seat, apart from when he swapped places with Stephen in the series B Christmas Special.BuzzersRich — Falling object crashing on landingBarry — Soldiers marching followed by their commander shouting "Wait for it!"Bill — A speak-your-weight machine saying "12 stone, 2 pounds, 4 ounces"Alan — A person being sprung in the air yelling "Arrrrrrrggggghhhhh!!!"TopicsTheoretically, you can get to anywhere on Earth in exactly 42 minutes and 12 seconds, by burrowing through it. The speed would be the maximum velocity as determined by gravity. If you had a tube that went through the Earth, you'd accelerate to the middle, then decelerate on your way out. You could end up anywhere, because gravity works at every angle, not just north-south. The Antipodes are the exact opposite points on Earth, they don't have to be north-south. There was a contest to make an Earth Sandwich to find the antipodal points of places on the Earth. The winners had New Zealand at one end and Spain at the other, but there was controversy because baguettes were used for the sandwich, and if they were put crossways, it strictly wouldn't be a sandwich. Other antipodal points include Indonesia to Colombia, and an interesting one for religionists, Mecca to the Tematangi Atoll (also known as Captain Bligh's Atoll) in the Pacific Ocean. Interestingly, there is a massive lagoon in the centre of the island, and because it's the antipode, whichever direction you look at, you're facing Mecca. The 42 minutes and 12 second theory was made in a series of letters in the 17th century between Isaac Newton and Robert Hooke.Tangent: The idea of a gravity train isn't feasible on Earth, but it's possible on the Moon, because there is no molten core, but it would take 53 minutes to go through the Moon.Aristotle believed that heavier objects fell faster than lighter objects, but this theory was disproved by Galileo Galilei who worked out in his head that objects with different masses fell at the same speed. He then did experiments involving ramps and other things (forfeit: dropping cannonballs from the Leaning Tower of Pisa). He then proved that half a ton of coal fell at the same speed as a ton of coal. He also proved that if people believed Aristotle's theory, it wouldn't work, since he said that the heavier object fell faster than the lighter one, so if they were attached together they would have to fall at the same speed, because one couldn't hold the other one up. Then, the Apollo 15 astronaut David Scott did an experiment on the Moon with a hammer and a feather to prove Galileo right.Tangent: Alan tried to answer which was heavier, a ton of gold or a ton of feathers, but since gold is measured in troy weight, rather than avoirdupois, a ton of gold is heavier than a ton of feathers.Tangent: Similarly, Isaac Newton's law of gravitation were thought out before he published them in 1687, which was a whole 100 years before the Montgolfier brothers did their first flight in a hot air balloon.George Biggin and Letitia Sage flew in a hydrogen balloon from Southwark and went "all the way". Around 150,000 people came to see balloon ascents, as they were the spectacle of the age. Vincenzo Lunardi, an Italian who brought ballooning to Britain, was going to go up with Biggin & Sage, but he then thought that might be too many, so he escaped and so they became the first members of the mile high club. WHilst flying over Piccadilly, it was believed that Sage was spotted "on all fours", although she later claimed that she was fastening up the opening of the balloon. The accurate answer is that they got to Harrow, so they travelled a distance of 14 miles, and spoke to below through a speaking trumpet. There was a scandal involving wager books and the gentlemen's clubs, Brooks's and White's in the St James's area of London. It mainly involved making bets involving having sexual intercourse in a balloon, or as they put it, "plays hospitals with...", but they made bets on just about anything imaginable.Tangent: The first people to cross the English Channel by air were Jean-Pierre Blanchard and his American backer. While on the flight, they had a massive argument involving their nations, who they were both very proud of. So, Blanchard put on lead weights to give the balloon more ballast, meaning that Jeffries would have to get out, so Blanchard would become the first man to cross, but then both their national flags fell out of the balloon as well. Then they dropped out of the sky too early, so they had to jettison all their food and instruments, as well as the sandbags, before taking all their clothing off and they then peed and pooed out of the basket, and they just made it over the cliffs and landed in a tree to get the record.A gossypiboma is something left inside you by a surgeon after he has done an operation, normally cotton, lint or sponge. "Gossypi" is actually the Latin for cotton. There are 1,500 cases of this every year in the United States. 54% of foreign objects are found in the abdomen or pelvis, 22% in the vagina, 7.5% in the chest and 17% in other places, like the spinal canal, brain or face. There have been cases of suing, such as a man who had a 6 inch metal surgical clamp, but then they realised that he'd already had an operation to take out a 6 inch surgical clamp, because it was then found out that he had 2 stuck in, and when they removed the first one, they didn't bother checking around for the other one. The main reason for objects being left in people is either because of emergency work which hasn't been properly planned, unplanned changes in procedure and patients with a higher body mass index. If the item stuck inside a person is a surgical instrument, it's know as foreign-body granuloma, but interesting the surgeons refer to it as "retaining", making out that it's the fault of the patients. (Forfeit: mind your own business[clarification needed])When you shoot a gun in the air, the bullets land in a different place, so the shooter would never get hit, as even a small blast of wind, would move it away from the gun. A test was done on a floating platform, where 500 bullets were shot in the air and only 4 landed on the platform. A typical 7.62mm bullet fired vertically can reach a height of nearly 2.5km, meaning it would take 17 seconds to reach the top height, then take another 40 seconds to come down, if it was going at a speed of 70 metres a second, which would cause serious cranial injuries. Interestingly, if you had a bullet in one hand and a gun facing horizontally at the same level in another, both bullets would hit the ground at the same time, if fired at the same time. The reason being is that they both have the same force working on them, gravity. The only way this couldn't happen is if the bullet was fired at 5 miles per second, which means it would leave the Earth and never return into the atmosphere, or if the bullet went far enough, because then the curvature of the Earth would mean it had further to fall. There are many practical applications to this in the laws of physics which say it must be the case.If someone is hiding at the Welcome Break motorway service station at Scratchwood Services, which is the first service station on the M1 motorway, north of London, the best way to stop them without getting out of London and with no telecommunications, is to shoot them using the guns on HMS Belfast, which is permanently moored in the River Thames in the centre of London. The forward turrets on HMS Belfast are directly aimed at Scratchwood Services.Tangent: In World War II, the USS Phoenix managed to survive the attack on Pearl Harbor without even a scratch, it was known as the luckiest ship in the United States Navy. It was sunk in 1982, after it had been sold to Argentina and renamed General Belgrano, which still remains the only ship sunk by a nuclear submarine, with the loss of over 300 lives.General IgnoranceThe daily recommendation of wine could be dispensed by a cloud the size of a bus. The daily limit of wine is 250ml.A gunslinger's revolver has 5 bullets (forfeit: six). Wyatt Earp said that despite the fact there are six chambers, the 6th chamber is for safety, the hammer can rest on it, so you couldn't discharge by mistake, because the six-gun, as it was known, had no safety catch.Tangent: Stephen met an armourer in America who worked on Westerns all his life and said that the only 2 people never to blink when firing a gun were Clint Eastwood and Yul Brynner.Alan Davies abrubtly said one of them was Kenneth WilliamsThe red juice that comes out of a steak when you cook it is myoglobin (forfeit: blood), which is used to operate muscles. When you use muscles for short, sharp bursts of energy, glucose from the blood provides the fuel, but when you want to do sustained activity, myoglobin is used to oxidise the fat, which provides the energy.Tangent: A joke from Stephen: "What do you get when you put "it" in gravy?" – Gravity.QI XL ExtrasTangent: A discussion about the film Brazil, change machines, tubes, the dangers of aeroplane toilets and sucking up prairie dogs with a grain elevator.Tangent: In those days, they used a barometer as an altimeter when flying.An underwater weighing machine would be used for the most accurate form of body weighing. If you're under 20% fat, then you're not obese, but for women, it's 30%. (Forfeit: whale weigh station)Tangent: The body mass index is your weight divided by your height squared. Interestingly, though the BMI has flaws, because muscular people would be classed as overweight, because of all their toned muscles, but marathon runners would also be classified as malnourished and underweight.Even though bicycles are ancient, by modern standards, the physics of bicycles wasn't fully understood until 1970. The reason you're more stable on a bicycle when you go faster is because of torque, not gyroscopic pull, as was believed. This was proven by a man called David Jones, who discovered the caster effect, which showed that the back wheel, self-rights itself as you go along. Also, when you want to turn left on a bicycle, you turn the handlebar slightly to the right, known as countersteering, so when you're heading towards a kerb, you have to steer into it, before you can get away from it. A way to test this is to take your left hand off the handlebar and try and turn left, it makes you able only to go right.Tangent: Bill reveals the time that he played Adolf Hitler in a play called "The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui", and his mum said that Bill looked great looking like Hitler.Tangent: Stephen tells of a Utopian way of exchanging bicycles that happened in Cambridge, where people would just exchange bikes wherever they wanted and it lasted just 2 days.The Fosbury Flop was created by Dick Fosbury as a better technique to do the high jump. The previous techniques were the straddle, the Western roll, the Scissors and the Eastern cut-off. In the 1968 Summer Olympics, he performed this new technique and won the gold medal. The reason why every high jumper now uses the Fosbury Flop is because of how the centre of gravity works. When doing the Flop, your centre of gravity is under the bar, whereas if you did the Scissors, your centre of gravity would be 30cm over the bar. The other thing the Flop did was change the landing from a sandpit to a cushion type landing. So, by having a lower centre of gravity, you have more height, in exchange for no extra effort. The records have also stood for a long time. The male record was set in 1993, while the female one was set in 1987. The male long jump record between 1935 and 1960 was held by Jesse Owens.Tangent: Bill tells of the time he lost a charity limbo dancing match to Sinitta and Lionel Blair. He came 3rd, and Lionel Blair won.General IgnoranceTangent: The recommended daily allowance of wine in the United Kingdom is 21 units per week. In Poland, it's 12.5, in Canada, it's 23.75 and in America, it's 24.5, in South Africa and Denmark, it's 31.5 and in Australia, it's 35. In the UK, if you drank between 21 and 30 units, you'd be in the the group of people in the lowest mortality rate in the country. To be on the same level as a teetotaller, you'd have to drink 63 units a week, the equivalent of a whole bottle of wine a day. Although, it was later admitted by the person who made the claim, that he made the number up, and was just asked to think of a number.[edit] Episode 13 "Gothic"Broadcast date19 February 201020 February 2010 (XL edition)15 June 2010 (ABC1 airing/iView upload)Recording date14 May 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (Joint Winner with ?17 points) 12th win; the second time Alan has won consecutive showsJimmy Carr (?28 points) 15th appearanceJack Dee (Joint Winner with ?17 points) 2nd appearance, 1st winSue Perkins (?26 points) 1st appearanceBuzzersJack — Psycho-esque musicJimmy — A man breaking down a door, saying "Here's Jimmy!", followed by a woman screaming (a reference to The Shining)Sue — The Wilhelm screamAlan — The reading of a classified football result; "Arsenal 0, Norwich City 4." (Famously, Davies is an Arsenal fan, while Fry is a Norwich fan.)ThemeThe set is darkened and everyone is wearing black. Stephen is sat in between some grotesques and gnomes. There's also a cobweb-laden candlestick.TopicsThe panellists are shown a picture of a grotesque (forfeit: gargoyle). The difference between a grotesque and a gargoyle is that gargoyles are used for draining and guttering in Gothic buildings. The word gargoyle comes from the French gargouille, meaning throat, also coming from the English word "gargle".The Goths were originally from Scandinavia, who defeated the Vandals, a German tribe, where we get the word "vandal" from. Goth has tended to mean other things though, such as the cathedrals, which were called "barbaric" during the Italian Renaissance, as it was used as an insult for anything that wasn't classic, because they were perceived to be the people who destroyed Rome and therefore civilisation. Gothic literature has tended to be referred to as "macabre". Carpenter Gothic is a form of craftsmanship famously depicted in the Grant Wood painting American Gothic, which showed a house, now known as the American Gothic House in the town of Eldon, Iowa. The main feature of Carpenter Gothic is the pointed Ecclesiastical star on the top, which resembles a Gothic arch. If a Goth is "emotional", they're referred to as Emos. Emos want to kill themselves, whereas Goths want to kill everyone else.Tangent: The man in American Gothic was Grant Wood's dentist.Tangent: Discussion about why everyone wanted to paint their bedrooms black, like Goths.Tangent: Jimmy points out how the woman in American Gothic looks like Gail Platt from Coronation Street.The painter who painted Sunflowers was Vincent van Gogh. The Dutch pronounciation was given by Arthur Japin, a famous novelist, who is also the presenter of the Dutch version of QI, who was also in the audience. Stephen and Arthur talk about the Dutch version, as well as Thomas van Luyn, who is the Dutch equivalent to Alan in the show. (Forfeits: Van Goff, Van Goth, Van Go)Tangent: Discussion about van Gogh giving his ear to a prostitute, and the "possibility" of it being a primitive bugging device, which leads to Alan telling of the similarity between that and the alien in the John Sayles film The Brother from Another Planet.The whole planet's population of 6.8 billion could turn into zombies, otherwise known as a zombie apocalypse, within 38 days, using geometric progression and exponential growth to work it out. The word "zombie" comes from Haiti, where they got the venom from a pufferfish to make them appear sort of "dead". It was first discovered by Wade Davis, an ethnobotanist in the 1980s, but his theory that it put people into a sort of "zombie trance" isn't universally accepted.In Accra, the capital city of Ghana, people are buried in elaborate coffins made into whatever shape you wanted, like a fish, an aeroplane, a mobile phone, a Bible or even a car. They cost up to US$400, which is nearly a year's wages to some Ghanaians. It's only been a tradition in Ghana for the last 50 years or so.The best way to make sure your family never forget you after you die is to make a lifesize replica of yourself. The Japanese artist Hananuma Masakichi was diagnosed with tuberculosis in the 1880s, so he knew he was going to die, so he made a life-size replica of himself that matched him exactly, with every hair from every pore on his body included, as well as his fingernails, toenails, teeth and having glass eyes made in place of real ones. It was so life-like, that people couldn't tell which was the real one and which was the fake. It eventually went into Robert Ripley's Odditorium in Los Angeles, but it got injured in an earthquake in 1996, and is awaiting restoration.Tangent: In Seattle, there is a company called SeeMeRot.com, where you can have cameras put into coffins, so you can the person inside disintegrate. Their slogan is "Being dead and buried doesn't mean you can't have friends over!". This leads to a discussion about being buried alive.In the 1960s, ? of all Americans who accidentally lost a limb came from the same town in Florida. The reason was insurance. There were 50 occurrences in the town which had a population of just 500. Most claimed they were shot off by hunting rifles. Other claims included accidentally firing someone climbing a fence.General IgnoranceAfter the Vietnam War, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was occupied by a soldier who had died in Vietnam. His family had heard that "the Unknown Soldier" had died in a helicopter crash, and their son had also died in the same helicopter crash, but through DNA testing, it was proved that he was "the Unknown Soldier", so his remains were exhumed. It's believed that there never will be another "Unknown Soldier", because all British & American soldiers are DNA profiled. The original "Unknown Soldier" was first done simultaneously in Britain & France after World War I in 1920. In Britain, there were 4 bodies and the general pointed at one and he became "the Unknown Soldier". That particular soldier was given a state funeral at Westminster Abbey with full military honours and was entombed with a Medieval crusader's sword from the Royal Collection in the presence of a guard made up of 100 VC's. The guests of honour were 100 women who had lost their husbands and their sons during the war. The Cenotaph, made by Lutyens is dedicated to the soldier as well. (Forfeit: Nobody Knows)The phrase "Saved by the bell" is a boxing term. There is no proof of the myths about people who tied a bell to their toe, but they have found to not be true, although many people do fear premature burials,nike mercurial vapor france, such as in the Edgar Allan Poe book, The Premature Burial. (Forfeit: Buried Alive)Mozart's burial wasn't a pauper's funeral in Vienna as many believe, although only members of the aristocracy were buried in tombs or vaults. His funeral cost 8 guilder and 56 kreuzer. Mozart had a pet starling who he buried in 1784, and its whistling inspired the principal theme of the last movement of Piano Concerto K453.Tangent: On the top 10 list of play-off tunes for people who die is the theme tune to Countdown.QI XL ExtrasTangent: Discussion about The Da Vinci Code being a book about "bad monks" and about the fact that Grant Wood sounds like the name of a porn star.Tangent: Discussion about early Goths, such as Alice Cooper, Robert Smith of The Cure and Siouxsie Sioux.Tangent: Discussion of the new theory that van Gogh lost his ear in a fight with Paul Gauguin. van Gogh was never good with girls either, the parents of a girl he liked refused him access, so he stood with his hand being burnt by a flame of a candle until he could see her, but her father just blew it out and told him to go away.Tangent: The exponential growth originated with the rice and chessboard problem, in which a guy puts one piece of rice on the first chessboard piece, then 2 on the next, 4 on the next, etc. The total number of grains needed to fill the board is 18,446,744,073,709,551,615 (2^64 – 1), which is the amount of rice that would be made in 80 years, if all the arable land was converted.Tangent: Even though zombies and voodoo are associated with Haiti, it originated in West Africa. "Zombie" comes from the West African word, "nzambi".Tangent: Jimmy once took his brother through a graveyard and he thought that people who were buried under gravestones with curly bits on the top were chefs.In a graveyard, a person buried under a broken column means that they died young. Other symbols include a broken chain which symbolises a loss in the family and apples represent sin. The lichen that grows on graveyards is looked at by scientists as an indicator for pollution. The main reasons they do it is because you can roughly tell the age of the lichen on the gravestone because of the date and graveyards are not normally sprayed with chemicals, so they remain unaltered, and because it's considered bad to spray them with pesticides.Tangent: Other odd methods of burials include being turned into compost by being dissolved in liquid nitrogen then being vibrated, then a magnet is used to remove mercury and other metals that could harm the making of it. Then 25–30 kilograms are left over which then gets made into a coffin made out of maize or potato starch, and then you're buried and rot into the earth and biodegrade within 6–12 months.The Vampire Squid from Hell, Latin name, Vampyroteuthis infernalis, has the biggest eyes of any animal in comparison to the size of its head, if it were put into a human, the eyes of a human would be a foot wide. Because it lives so deep in the sea, its defence is not ink, but a stream of blue bioluminescent orb[disambiguation needed]s, which dazzle its enemies.The toughest way to become a mummy is by self-mummification. In the old days, they used to remove the brain through the nose by turning it into a liquid mush. A Buddhist sect called Sokushinbutsu use self-mummification. To do this, for 1,000 days, a priest would eat nuts and seeds, while taking part in vigorous physical activity, so he'd have no body fat. Then for another 1,000 days, he's eat just bark and tree roots and then drink a poisonous tea made from the sap of the Urushi tree, which would cause him to vomit and lose bodily fluids. Then he'd be locked inside a small stone tomb with just an air tube and a bell while doing the lotus position. He'd ring the bell every day to prove he was alive. When the bell stopped ringing, the tube was removed and the tomb was sealed. Then after another 1,000 days, the tomb was checked and if it was successful, he was deemed to have reached enlightenment. Since the 19th century, it's not done any more, as it is now an illegal form of suicide.Tangent: The panellists try to explain to Stephen what the reverse cowgirl is.General IgnoranceIf the beat on a electrocardiogram has flat-lined, it means that the cable has been pulled out. Fibrillators are used for arrythmia, not to start up the heart again, as depicted in many movies. (Forfeit: You're Dead)Tangent: Another popular play-off tune is Bohemian Rhapsody by Queen. The next track on their album after Bohemian Rhapsody is Another One Bites the Dust.[edit] Episode 14 "Greeks"Broadcast date5 March 20106 March 2010 (XL edition)Recording date26 May 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (?47 points)Clive Anderson (Winner with 3 points) 14th appearanceRich Hall (2 points) 20th appearancePhill Jupitus (?5 points) 21st appearanceThe Audience (Winner with 10 points – See Notes below) 4th winBuzzersClive — Hymn to LibertyRich — Theme from ZorbaPhill — Traditional Greek folk tuneAlan — Greased Lightning from GreaseNotesThis is the third instance of a complete panel appearing twice. Anderson, Hall and Jupitus all appeared together in episode 3 of series B.The Audience were only announced as winners in the XL version, as the fact that won them their 10 points was cut from the initial broadcast.ThemeThe set is decorated in Ancient Greek architecture.TopicsIf you were a rich Athenian, you had to sponsor a Greek battleship. The only way to get out of it was by finding someone richer than yourself. The interesting thing is if your property was worth 70 times more than the average wage of a skilled worker, you had to pay for the Greek Navy. To challenge paying, you had to find someone richer than you and appear together in court and offer to swap everything you had to the person you thought was richer than you.According to Herodotus, before a Spartan went into battle, they had a new haircut. Before the Battle of Thermopylae, a Persian spy went into the Spartan camp and saw them getting new hairdos, which meant that they were prepared to die, in a way, it was their preparation for mortal combat, but it was reported that they were hardly worth fighting. Interestingly, the depiciton of the Spartans in the film 300 could have been even camper than it was, because during the battle depicted in the film, the 300 Spartans were accompanied by 700 Thespians. All the city states did run on different lines, but the sad thing is that eventually the Spartans and Athenians went into battle later on, and the Spartans won, and they didn't like the classical civilisation such as art, harmony, music, mathematics, logic and politics. Stephen says that the Athenians loss would have been as if the Klingons had beaten the Vulcans in Star Trek.Tangent: The word "laconic" means taking your time before you answer. An example of this was during the Peloponnesian War, when the Athenians sent a messenger to Sparta, which said "If we beat you, we will not spare your children. We will destroy your civilisation. We will kill everybody. We will spare no-one." The Spartans reply just said, "If", which was the original laconic phrase. QI Error Watch - this was not during the Peloponnesian War but was a response to Philip II of MacedonAt a gymnasium, you shouldn't wear any clothing, because "Gymnos" is the Greek for naked, hence "gymnasium" meant "a naked place". During the Ancient Olympic Games, the competitors performed naked, so to restrain the penis, they put it in a sort of pouch called a kynodesme. It kept the penis in an upright position by being tied close to the stomach and the ends of the tie being in a bow. If your trainer, wanted to get your attention, he'd just pull on the bow to get your attention.Tangent: Other things involving the word "gymnos", were "gymnopaedia", where young naked boys went out dancing in public festivals and "gymnologise" means "to debate while naked".Baron de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games won his own Olympic gold medal in poetry, although he actually entered it anonymously. In the early years of the modern Olympics, there were non-physical events, such as town planning, which was an event up until the 1948 Games. Other artistic events included sculpture, music, painting and literature. The oldest person to win an Olympic medal was a Briton called John Copley, who won a silver medal in the engravings and etchings event in 1948. In the 1900 Summer Olympics, there was a gold medal for the poodle clipping event, where the winner, a farmer's wife who clipped 17 poodles in 2 hours. Correction: This was an April's Fool joke created by The Daily Telegraph in the run up to the Beijing Olympics.[2] QI are now aware of this.[3] The reason that all the artistic events were stopped was because they believed that it defeated the point of amateurism, because all the athletes had other jobs, whereas the artists, poets, etc, would carrying on doing those jobs after the Games.Olympic gold medals are made of at least 92.5% silver (forfeits: gold, chocolate), but they do have 6 grams of gold in them. The medals are gold plated, but they haven't been made entirely of gold since 1912. If the medals today were made out of 18 carat gold, they'd be worth £3,000, or £1.5 million for the whole competition.If you bite a gold coin, and a toothmark is left, then it's a fake coin, because other metals were used in making gold coins, but for counterfeits lead was used, and that did leave an impression, so those ones would be fake, and you'd be ill if you had some lead, but as Alan points out, there is no lead in pencils, as mentioned in series A. Only 161,000 tonnes of gold has ever been mined in human history, most of it being in the last 50 years, and Rich claims that if it was all compressed, it could be put into the QI studio, but it wouldn't fill 2 Olympic size swimming pools.Tangent: The island of Yap in Micronesia, used hole shaped stones as its currency, and it makes it a fixed money supply, unlike the gold standard that Richard Nixon got rid of while he was President of the United States.Sewage could be used to create alien life, because most faeces produced in space is simply jettisoned, rather than taken back to Earth. Arthur C. Clarke had a theory, known as "Toilet of the Gods", which suggested that humans might even be descended from the poo of another civilisation. It came about because scientists discovered that a lot of the junk in Earth's orbit was covered in faecal matter. There are now space debris lawyers, because if any junk hits a satellite that orbits Earth, it could destroy it.General IgnoranceYou shouldn't touch a meteorite after it crashes on Earth, because it would be too cold (forfeit: it's hot). In space, they are between ?240°C and ?270°C, inside and outside, so you could have frostbite. Around 50,000 meteorites above 20 grams fall into Earth every year, but most of them are lost at sea, but most of the ones that land on land are found in Antarctica. No human has ever died from a meteorite, a dog was killed by one in Egypt in 1911 and a boy from Uganda was hit, but not seriously hurt by one in 1992.The instant you get sucked into a vacuum you have only the amount of air left that you exhale to survive, so normally that's only a few minutes at the most (forfeit: instant death). Gases escaping from your body would make you instantly defecate, projectile vomit and urinate. You could survive with no long-term problems, but only if you stay in for only a couple of minutes. The first sensation would be the moisture on your tongue boiling, which would make you lose taste for days. This information is known because of accidents with humans.The country that has weekly news broadcasts in Latin is Finland (forfeit: Vatican City). The show, called Nuntii Latini has a 5-minute broadcast every Friday at 1:55pm, then again on the local radio in Helsinki. Radio Bremen in Germany also do 4? minutes of Latin news a month. Interestingly, more people outside Finland understand Latin than Finnish, which is the reason of why they do the broadcast.Tangent: There is a Finnish singer called Jukka Ammondt who has done covers of Elvis Presley songs in Latin, including "Nunc Hic Aut Nunquam", also known as "It's Now or Never", "Cor Ligneum", also known as "Wooden Heart" and "Tenere Me Ama", also known as "Love Me Tender".Because of health and safety, plates are not thrown at the end of a Greek meal any more. Instead, flowers are now used, as they're much safer, although Greek restaurants can obtain a licence to throw the plates. (Forfeit: Plates)QI XL ExtrasTangent: The suffix "ship", as in "battleship" or "championship" is of Germanic origin. Interestingly, all the f's in German, became p's, such as "ffennig" became "pfennig" and "feffer" became "pepper", but even more weirdly the Arabic language removed all its p's because of this, hence "sharip", became "sharif". This thing is known as the fricative shift and was discussed by the Brothers Grimm.A Roman orgy is not as debauched as a Greek symposium. A Greek symposium was a place mainly for drinking, although nowadays, the word "symposium" means seminar or an intellectual/academic gathering. A Roman orgy wasn't really a wild place where sexual intercourse took place, it was more a place where you liked food, and they were not exclusively for adults either. Caligula himself preferred to have solid gold food and fish that looked like they had just come out of the ocean and were still blue. There is also no truth that they had a vomitorium to throw up food, after all a vomitorium is actually an exit from a theatre, although Alan claims that as he was growing up people in pubs used to go outside to throw up, so they could drink more alcohol, otherwise known as a tactical chunder.Tangent: Gymnasiums were originally designed to be places where the middle classes trained for battle. They then became places of education, the two most famous ones being the Academy and the Lyceum. The Academy was where Plato taught and was named after Akademos.Tangent: The word Odeon as used to describe a movie theatre was named by Oscar Deutsch, who used his initials "OD", to name the cinema chain he created. The answer was given by an audience member, who earned 10 points for the audience.Tangent: An Irishman created counterfeit Rai stones on Yap and ruined its economy.A Greek ideal was a person who seemed to symbolise the "perfect" Greek person. It seemed to be determined by a few factors, one of them being the wrist measurement. Each of the panellists gave their wrist measurement, of which Phill's was 8", but his thigh measurement needed to be 28", but his were only 23". His neck is 19" which is near perfect, as it should be twice the size of the wrist. All the other panellists have 7" wrists. The perfect bicep should be 17", Alan's is only 12?". The panellist closest to the Greek ideal is Clive, even though Phill has a near perfect Greek neck. 2 men called Eugen Sandow and Monsieur Attila created the bodybuilding craze, later made more famous by Charles Atlas and Arnold Schwarzenegger. They made their fame by doing shows in London, and their fans were allowed to touch them only with smelling salts nearby, in case they fainted.Tangent: Phill has a tattoo of a Greek helmet on his wrist.The panellists are shown a theory which tries to prove the existence of God.This theory was created by Kurt G?del, widely regarded as the best logician in the 20th century. He never published it, because he didn't want people to think that he believed in God, he was just demonstrating how symbolic logic could be used. He was also a personal friend of Albert Einstein. G?del starved himself to death because he kept having paranoid fantasies of being poisoned. The only person he trusted to taste his food was his wife, but she was in hospital for a time.Tangent: Stephen was in the film I.Q., where Lou Jacobi played G?del and Walter Matthau played Einstein. Matthau taught Stephen how to gamble.General IgnoranceTangent: When Greece won UEFA Euro 2004, a pub near where Alan lived made a homemade blue plaque, which said that a Greek person ran naked down the New North Road to celebrate Greece's victory.Bonus: Because Alan was in last place, Stephen gave him the chance to switch his points with that of the audience (in a reference to the first question), if he could say what the audience got their 10 points for. Unfortunately, he forgot that it was the Oscar Deutsch/Odeon question.[edit] Episode 15 "Green"Broadcast date26 March 2010Recording date22 May 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (?7 points)Bill Bailey (Winner with ?5 points) 19th appearanceDanny Baker (?13 points) 3rd appearanceJeremy Clarkson (?27 points) 7th appearanceNotesThe projection screen behind Davies was switched off during recording "to save electricity", so he and Bailey moved to the other side of the studio for the rest of the recording. This was done because the screen began to lose colour and flicker during the recording and couldn't be fixed. The decision was made by Clarkson, as an off the cuff comment to move to one screen. This was then re-filmed for broadcast.BuzzersAs part of the episode's theme of going green, the buzzers were disconnected and the contestants had a selection of small wind instruments.Bill – Plays a scale on a swanee whistleDanny – Imitates a cuckoo callJeremy – Blows hard, causing it to emit a piercing, high-pitched soundAlan – A duck callTopicsThe colour of Frankenstein was normal human colour, because Frankenstein was the baron, not the monster in the novel, Frankenstein. (Forfeit: Green)The colour of Frankenstein's monster was yellow according to the description in the novel by Mary Shelley. In the book, he is actually given the name,nike jordan, Adam, as in the first man of the same name. (Forfeit: Green)The best place to mine for gold in the United Kingdom is in discarded mobile phones. Out of every ton of ore that is mined, only 5 grams of it is gold, whereas a ton of mobile phones contains 150 grams of gold, 300 kilograms of copper and 3 kilograms of silver. 1.5 million mobile phones are chucked away in the UK every year. Japan has cornered the market in eco-recycling, and even manages to get gold out of sewage.Tangent: All the gold ever mined in human history would form a cube 55 feet (17 m) square.Tangent: Platinum might also be recovered from roads using E. coli (not this E. coli), as it is given off by catalytic converters. They're 100 times more platinum enriched, than before catalytic converters existed.From 1836 to 1940, the Belville family of London sold time. Taking a Arnold chronometer set to the correct time at Royal Observatory, Greenwich they went around London resetting clocks in offices and homes for a fee.Tangent: A discussion of the 24-hour clock. Bill suggests that decimal time would be more logical. Alan counters that it would mean no more elevenses.Tangent: Originally, the Babylonians devised a 12-hour clock, because they had a base-12 counting system.It is all time and no time at the South Pole, as the time zones converge there, though for practical purposes the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station uses New Zealand Standard Time (not GMT as stated by Stephen).Tangent: Jeremy regrets that at the North Magnetic Pole the compass doesn't spin round.According to the Vegetarian Society, vegetarians gain their name from the Latin word "vegetus", meaning "whole", "sound", "fresh" or "lively". (Forfeit: They Only Eat Vegetables)Name a famous vegetarian? (Forfeit: Hitler)Tangent: The possibility of replacing a tortoise's legs with wheels and motorizing it.A cow magnet collects stray metal objects that the animal has swallowed, allowing them to be digested.Tangent: Attacks on people by cows.Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act of 1753 was good for Scotland, as it did not apply there, leading to a rash of elopements to Gretna Green. Up until 1753, you didn't need permission from your parents to marry, you only had to not be married, the girl must be over 12 years old, the boy over 14 years old, and you must not be brother and sister. You didn't even need a witness. The reason everyone went to Gretna Green, was because it was the nearest place on the main road to Edinburgh to have one of these "anvil marriages", which were so called because you didn't need a priest or mayor to do it, so they were mainly done by blacksmiths. 5,000 weddings a year are still performed in Gretna Green.At this point, Jeremy asks Stephen to turn off the screen behind Alan & Bill, so Alan & Bill move over to the other side of the set, next to Danny & Jeremy.Colonel Bogey went one over par in 1925 when the British adopted the American meaning of the term, as previously "bogey" meant "par" in the UK. In America, the word "bogey" referred to "Mr. Bogey", which was the score he got doing a round of golf, so if you did worse than that you were "one over bogey". But the Americans didn't like the idea of a "Mr. Bogey", so they changed it to "Colonel Bogey". Then, when they went over to British golf courses, they found them much easier, so the British altered the system to match the Americans.General IgnoranceIf you're on a beach with a screwdriver in one hand, and a Rusty Nail in the other, a mosquito will want to avoid the person holding the drinks and go for the drinks. Male mosquitos do not drink blood, but feed on nectar and fruit juice. Females also feed on nectar, but require blood for the development of eggs. Female mosquitoes are attracted by moisture, lactic acid, carbon dioxide, body heat and movement.Tangent: Other well-known cocktails include the Manhattan, which is made of whisky, vermouth and bitters. A Cuba Libre is rum and coke. A Daiquiri (invented in the is Floridita bar in Havana, Cuba) is rum, lime juice and sugar. A Margarita has salt on the edge of the glass, and is mainly gin. Sex on the Beach is vodka, peach schnapps, orange juice and cranberry juice.Wind turbines kill bats because the change of pressure damages their lungs if they fly too close, because like humans and other mammals, their lungs are soft, unlike birds, so their capillaries burst and they die. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds recently put out a report that showed that turbines can't kill birds. Jeremy also claims that it could do harm to goats, because a man in Taiwan lost 400 of them, because they couldn't sleep next to the turbine. (Forfeit: Kill Birds)[edit] Episode 16 "Geometry"Broadcast date2 April 2010Recording date2 June 2009PanellistsAlan Davies (Winner with 21 points) 13th winRob Brydon (2 points) 10th appearanceDavid Mitchell (4 points) 11th appearanceJohnny Vegas (2 points) 3rd appearanceNotesThis is the first regular edition of QI to not have the klaxon forfeit being set off.BuzzersRob — Bermuda Triangle by Barry ManilowJohnny — (You're So Square) Baby I Don't Care by Elvis PresleyDavid — The Windmills of Your Mind by StingAlan — The Wheels on the BusTopicsPeople who wear striped clothing look slimmer if the stripes are horizontal, not vertical, as many people think. It was even said that a female prisoner asked to have vertical stripes on her uniform to make her look slimmer. It was discovered after research by Dr. Peter Thompson of the University of York.Tangent: David's rant about people going on about wearing striped clothing.The columns around the Parthenon look straight because they are actually straight. It was originally believed to be an optical illusion due to a thing called entasis, which is where if a column is exactly straight, it looks big from a distance, but it looks spindly if it bows inwards. So, if you make it bow outwards, it looks straight. But, that's what they didn't do. It is also believed that entasis is used on some buildings nowadays to give them more support, but it certainly doesn't exist in the Parthenon.Tangent: Johnny's rant at Stephen giving ridiculously easy questions.Tangent: This research was also done by Dr. Peter Thompson, who happens to be in the audience at this recording, and "upsets" Johnny by saying that despite the fact that Johnny is wearing horizontal stripes, he doesn't look too thin.The panelists are shown 2 shapes; a splodgy shape and a spiky shape. One is called "kiki" and the other is called "bouba". Neither of the shapes are associated with the names, but the psychologist Wolfgang K?hler devised this test to see what people who spoke different languages thought when they heard the words "kiki" and "bouba", and everyone said that "kiki" sounded like the spiky one and "bouba" sounded like the splodgy one, a sort of onomatopoeia, as it were.Tangent: In the Huambisa language of South America, 98% of people who didn't speak it, when hearing the words "chunchuikit" and "mauts", and asked which was a bird, and which was a fish, thought that "chunchuikit" was a bird and "mauts" was a fish.Tangent: Rob claims that the Welsh for carrot is "moron", which he thinks is wrong, but then Stephen informs him that "moron" comes from the Greek for "blunt", hence "oxymoron" means "sharp blunt".The most successful textbook of all time is Euclid's Elements. Euclid's teachings in the book are mostly about planes and conic sections and all the forms of circles and squares, which basically showed how geometry works, which came in very handy for physics and engineering. Many mathematicians believe it to be the most beautiful of all mathematics textbooks. John Dee, the court magician to Queen Elizabeth I, was responsible for bringing Euclid to the attention of the world. He was also a spy and used 007 as a cipher. Alan got 7 points for knowing that piece of information.The best place to go to look into the future is on the International Date Line. If you're to the left of the line, you're ahead in time compared to when you're on the right of the line. Stephen lost a day when he flew from Los Angeles to Sydney recently. David then claims that if you did that every day, you'd theoretically live twice as long as everyone else, because the trip lasted one day, but in terms of actual time, it took 2 days. The literal best place to go is the Diomede Islands in the Bering Strait. Big Diomede Island is on the left of the line and Little Diomede Island is to the right of the line, so if you look at Big Diomede from Little Diomede, you are looking into the future.Tangent: The main reason why the International Date Line is squiggly and the Greenwich Meridian is straight, is because that the Date Line tries not to got through land, so it goes round island territories.The panellists are shown this puzzle and are asked where the missing square is. The answer is that the missing piece was created because the hypotenuse of the triangles are curved, not straight. The small triangle has a ratio of 5:2 and the big triangle has a ratio of 8:3, so neither triangle is similar. One has a slightly dipped line, the other has a slightly "up" line. The eye assumes they're straight, but they aren't. It's known as Curry's paradox.General IgnoranceThe best place to punch a shark is in the eye or the gill, not the nose, as many people think, although it is true of dogs though. Interestingly, more people in the world are bitten by New Yorkers than by sharks. 81% of people who are bitten by sharks suffered minor injuries, although people bitten by humans could get rabies or other diseases. As mentioned in QI's A series, more people are killed by toilets than by sharks every year. 120 million sharks are killed by humans every year, mainly just for their fins, so shark fin soup can be produced, which according to Stephen is very tasteless, and chicken stock is used to give it flavour.Tangent: Despite looking evil and hideous to us, sharks have more reason to fear humans, than the other way round. Their teeth structure is also amazing, considering that they point backwards and every time one falls out, one from the row behind moves forward.An octopus has 2 legs, or to be more specific, they use 2 arms while moving underwater, as sort of ambulatory gait, and the other 4 are used for holding food, so it could be said that they have 6 arms and 2 legs.Because of libration, you can see 59% of the Moon from the Earth. Libration is the sort of jiggling effect you get when you see the Moon. Obviously, when there are different phases of the Moon, you see less.[edit] Episode 17 "Compilation Part 1"Broadcast Date5 April 2010ThemeA clip show using unbroadcast material from Series G.[edit] Episode 18 "Compilation Part 2"Broadcast Date16 April 2010ThemeA clip show using unbroadcast material from Series G.[edit] ReferencesGeneralWolf, Ian. "QI – Episode Guide". British Comedy Guide. http://www.comedy.org.uk/guide/tv/qi/episodes/7/. Retrieved 15 November 2009. Specific^ Lloyd, John (20 August 2008). "QI creator says BBC1 is 'our natural home'". Broadcast. http://www.broadcastnow.co.uk/news/2008/08/blog_qi_creator_on_its_move_to_bbc1.html. Retrieved 8 May 2009. ^ Hooper, Andy (15 August 2008). "How Telegraph struck Olympic poodle-clipping gold in Beijing". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/olympics/2565840/How-Telegraph-struck-Olympic-poodle-clipping-gold-in-Beijing.html. Retrieved 8 March 2010. ^ "April Fool (Poodle Clipping)". QI Talk Forum. 15 August 2008. http://www.qi.com/talk/viewtopic.php?t=18298&start=0&sid=b8c802f93d7a4bb8adea41370ab2a001. Retrieved 8 March 2010. v ? d ? eQIList of episodes ·  A series ·  B series ·  C series ·  D series ·  E series ·  F series ·  G series ·  H seriesPeopleStephen Fry ·  Alan Davies ·  John Lloyd ·  John Mitchinson ·  Piers Fletcher ·  Justin Pollard ·  Ian Lorimer ·  Dan Schreiber ·  Vitali Vitaliev ·  Adam Jacot de BoinodBooksThe Book of General Ignorance · The Book of Animal Ignorance · Advanced Banter · The QI Book of the DeadRelated projectsThe Museum of Curiosity · QI News · Quite Interesting LimitedRetrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QI_(G_series)"Categories: QIHidden categories: Articles that may be too long from March 2010 | Articles with too many wikilinks | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009 | All pages needing cleanup | Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2010 | Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2010 | Articles with links needing disambiguationPersonal toolsNew featuresLog in / create accountNamespacesArticleDiscussionVariantsViewsReadEditView historyActionsSearchNavigationMain pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleInteractionAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact WikipediaDonate to WikipediaHelpToolboxWhat links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkCite this pagePrint/exportCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version This page was last modified on 7 July 2010 at 13:34.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;additional terms may apply.See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Contact usPrivacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimers

More articles related to the topic: